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Year 1191 (MCXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
- July 12 – Saladin's garrison surrenders, ending the two-year siege of Acre. Conrad of Montferrat, who has negotiated the surrender, raises the banners of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and of the Third Crusade leaders (Richard I of England, Philip II of France, and Leopold V of Austria), on the city's walls and towers. Richard stays to push on to Jerusalem, but Philip returns to France, to take possession of a part of Flanders, whose count had died at the siege of Acre. Back in France, Philip also schemes with Richard's brother, John of England, to dispossess Richard of his French lands while he is still away, but the intervention of John's (and Richard's) mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, foils the plan.
- September 7 – Battle of Arsuf in Palestine: Richard I of England defeats Saladin, during the Third Crusade.
- Khmer King Jayavarman VII sacks the capital of Champa.
- The administration of the Taungoo region in modern-day Myanmar is first recorded, when Pagan King Narapatisithu appoints a son-in-law, Ananda Thuriya, to be governor of Kanba Myint.
- The first reference to a windmill in Europe is made by a Dean Herbert of East Anglia, whose mills are supposedly in competition with the abbey of Bury St. Edmunds. This is probably an invention imported from interaction with the Muslim world, since the first windmills were most likely innovated from the Bana Musa brothers in the Islamic Middle East, during the middle 9th Century. The windmill will spread in the other direction, to be introduced to China by as early as 1219.
- ^ King John by Warren. Published by University of California Press in 1961. p. 43
- ^ Jean-Claude Maire Vigueur (2010) L'autre Rome. Une histoire des Romains à l'époque communale (XIIe-XIVe siècle). Paris: Tallandier. pp.316.
- ^ Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
- ^ Picard, Christophe (2000). Le Portugal musulman (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. L'Occident d'al-Andalus sous domination islamique. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 110. ISBN 2-7068-1398-9.
- ^ Georg Haggren, Petri Halinen, Mika Lavento, Sami Raninen ja Anna Wessman (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. p. 380.
- ^ Grandsen, Antonia (2001). "The Growth of Glastonbury Traditions and Legends in the Twelfth Century". In J. P. Carley. Glastonbury Abbey and the Arthurian tradition. Boydell & Brewer. p. 43. ISBN 0-85991-572-7.