1000 Pillar Temple (Moodabidri)

Saavira Kambada Basadi
Tribhuvana Tilaka Cūḍāmaṇi
Sāvira Kambada Basadi
Sāvira Kambada Temple, Karnataka
Religion
AffiliationJainism
DeityChandraprabhu
FestivalsMahavir Jayanti
Governing bodyShri Moodabidri Jain Matha
BhattarakaCharukeerti Panditacharya Varya
Location
LocationMoodabidri, Karnataka
Geographic coordinates13°04′27.3″N 74°59′51.5″E / 13.074250°N 74.997639°E / 13.074250; 74.997639Coordinates: 13°04′27.3″N 74°59′51.5″E / 13.074250°N 74.997639°E / 13.074250; 74.997639
Architecture
CreatorDevaraya Wodeyar
Date established1430 AD
Temple(s)18
Website
www.jainkashi.com

Saavira Kambada Temple (Sāvira Kambada Basadi) or Tribhuvana Tilaka Cūḍāmaṇi), is a basadi or Jain temple noted for its 1000 pillars in Moodabidri, Karnataka, India. The temple is also known as "Chandranatha Temple" since it honours the tirthankara Chandraprabha, whose eight-foot idol is worshipped in the shrine.[1]

The town of Moodabidri is noted for its 18 Jain temples, but Saavira Kambada Temple is considered the finest among them.[2][3] The temple is considered an architectural wonder and is a major attraction of Moodabidri.

History[]

The Basadi was built by the local chieftain, Devaraya Wodeyar in 1430 and took 31 years to complete,[4] additions to temples were made in 1962. The shrine has a 50 feet tall monolith manasthambha erected by Karkala Bhairava Queen Nagala Devi.[5][6]

Architecture[]

Intricate carvings of pillar

The temple is considered an architectural wonder.[7] The temple is full of elaborate sculptures and decoration. The doorway of the temple has intricate carvings and is enclosed with ornate walls. The massive pillars of the temple are carved to resemble an octagonal wooden log with one baring inscription.[8][9][10] The 1000 pillars with exquisite detail, support the temple and no two pillars are alike.[11] The sloping roof of veranda are made of wood coated with copper tiles resembling the temples of Nepal. The temple complex has seven mandapas supported by beautifully carved pillars built in the Vijayanagara style.[12] The main mandapa of the temple consists of two interconnected column halls.[13] The fourth mandapa houses a sculpture of Bhairavadevi.[6] The top two storeys are carved in wood and the lowest one in stone.[5]

The hall interiors are massive, with elaborately decorated columns and a door flanked by two protector deities. The wooden panels inside the temples have carvings of Tirthankara flanked by elephants, guardian deities and female attendants holding flowers. Several bronze Jain idols in ornated frames are placed inside the garbhagriha.[14] The 8 ft idol of Chandranatha Swami made of panchadhatu present in the garbha griha.[5] The temple are built similar to temples in Nepal. The interiors of the temple are richly and variedly carved. A large number of tombs of Jain monks are present near the temple premise. The manastambha in front of the temple is noteworthy.[15] The pillars inside the hall bear carvings of dragon and giraffe resulting from the influence of trade with China in 15th century.[16] The image of Nandishwar-dweep dated 16th century is notable.[17]

Saavira Kambada Basadi along with Shravanabelagola, Kamal Basadi and Brahma Jinalaya are considerest the most important Jain centers in Karnataka.[18][19]

Other Jain Temples in Moodabidri[]

Guru Basadi dated back to c. 714 CE
Leppada Basadi built in the 14th century
Koti Basadi
Vikram Setty Basadi

Guru Basadi[]

Guru basadi is the earliest of the Jain monuments built in 714 AD. A black stone idol of Parshwanatha, about 3.5 metres (11 ft) tall, is installed in the sanctum of this basadi.[20] The temples also house 12th-century Jain palm leaf manuscripts known as ‘Dhavala texts’ are preserved. These texts were brought from shravanabelagola to here during the Mughal invasion. This basadi is also called Siddantha Basadi and Hale Basadi.[2]

Other[]

Moodabidri is noted for its 18 Jain Temples mentioned as follows:[21]

Moodabidri Jain Math[]

There is a matha at Moodabidri responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of temples in Moodabidri.[22] It is known as the Jain Varanasi of the South.[20][23]

Bhaṭṭāraka Charukeerthi[]

A bhaṭṭāraka seat exists at Moodabidri responsible for administering the 18 temples at Moodabidri and the other temples in the surrounding areas. The name given to the bhaṭṭāraka of Moodabidri is Charukeerthi.[22][24]

In popular culture[]

The temple is listed as one of the temples in the Fodor's "India's Jain Temples Are Incredible Architectural Marvels" series.[25]

Gallery[]

See also[]

References[]

Citation[]

  1. ^ Ramnarayan 2005.
  2. ^ a b Colaco 2015.
  3. ^ Pinto 2018.
  4. ^ Moodbidri Municipal Council.
  5. ^ a b c Venkataraman 2013.
  6. ^ a b "Pillar in front of Chandranatha Jain temple, Mudbidri". British Library. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  7. ^ Paul 2019, p. 18.
  8. ^ Sewell 1882, p. 235.
  9. ^ Fergusson 1876, p. 271.
  10. ^ Raman 1994, p. 65.
  11. ^ Rao 2020.
  12. ^ Fergusson 1876, pp. 271–272.
  13. ^ Abram 2003, p. 252.
  14. ^ Michell 2012, p. 226.
  15. ^ Balfour 1885, p. 146.
  16. ^ Kanisetti 2022.
  17. ^ Cort 2010, p. 71.
  18. ^ Butalia & Small 2004, p. 367.
  19. ^ Panikar & 2010 408.
  20. ^ a b Titze & Bruhn 1998, p. 47.
  21. ^ Titze & Bruhn 1998, p. 46.
  22. ^ a b The Hindu 2012.
  23. ^ Chavan 2005, p. 323.
  24. ^ Raghuram 2012.
  25. ^ Binayak 2020.

Sources[]

Books[]

Web[]

External links[]

Media related to 1000 Pillar Temple (Moodabidri) at Wikimedia Commons