1,000,000,000,000

The logarithmic scale can compactly represent the relationship among variously sized numbers.

This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities. Each number is given a name in the short scale, which is used in English-speaking countries, as well as a name in the long scale, which is used in some of the countries that do not have English as their national language.

Smaller than 10100 (one googolth)[]

10−100 to 10−30[]

10−30[]

(0.000000000000000000000000000001; 1000−10; short scale: one nonillionth; long scale: one quintillionth)

10−27[]

(0.000000000000000000000000001; 1000−9; short scale: one octillionth; long scale: one quadrilliardth)

10−24[]

(0.000000000000000000000001; 1000−8; short scale: one septillionth; long scale: one quadrillionth)

ISO: yocto- (y)

10−21[]

(0.000000000000000000001; 1000−7; short scale: one sextillionth; long scale: one trilliardth)

ISO: zepto- (z)

10−18[]

(0.000000000000000001; 1000−6; short scale: one quintillionth; long scale: one trillionth)

ISO: atto- (a)

10−15[]

(0.000000000000001; 1000−5; short scale: one quadrillionth; long scale: one billiardth)

ISO: femto- (f)

10−12[]

(0.000000000001; 1000−4; short scale: one trillionth; long scale: one billionth)

ISO: pico- (p)

10−9[]

(0.000000001; 1000−3; short scale: one billionth; long scale: one milliardth)

ISO: nano- (n)

10−6[]

(0.000001; 1000−2; long and short scales: one millionth)

ISO: micro- (μ)

10−3[]

(0.001; 1000−1; one thousandth)

ISO: milli- (m)

10−2[]

(0.01; one hundredth)

ISO: centi- (c)

10−1[]

(0.1; one tenth)

ISO: deci- (d)

100[]

(1; one)

101[]

(10; ten)

ISO: deca- (da)

102[]

(100; hundred)

ISO: hecto- (h)

103[]

(1000; thousand)

ISO: kilo- (k)

104[]

(10000; ten thousand or a myriad)

105[]

(100000; one hundred thousand or a lakh).

106[]

(1000000; 10002; long and short scales: one million)

ISO: mega- (M)

107[]

(10000000; a crore; long and short scales: ten million)

108[]

(100000000; long and short scales: one hundred million)

109[]

(1000000000; 10003; short scale: one billion; long scale: one thousand million, or one milliard)

ISO: giga- (G)

1010[]

(10000000000; short scale: ten billion; long scale: ten thousand million, or ten milliard)

1011[]

(100000000000; short scale: one hundred billion; long scale: hundred thousand million, or hundred milliard)

1012[]

(1000000000000; 10004; short scale: one trillion; long scale: one billion)

ISO: tera- (T)

1015[]

(1000000000000000; 10005; short scale: one quadrillion; long scale: one thousand billion, or one billiard)

ISO: peta- (P)

1018[]

(1000000000000000000; 10006; short scale: one quintillion; long scale: one trillion)

ISO: exa- (E)

1021[]

(1000000000000000000000; 10007; short scale: one sextillion; long scale: one thousand trillion, or one trilliard)

ISO: zetta- (Z)

1024[]

(1000000000000000000000000; 10008; short scale: one septillion; long scale: one quadrillion)

ISO: yotta- (Y)

1027[]

(1000000000000000000000000000; 10009; short scale: one octillion; long scale: one thousand quadrillion, or one quadrilliard)

1030[]

(1000000000000000000000000000000; 100010; short scale: one nonillion; long scale: one quintillion)

1033[]

(1000000000000000000000000000000000; 100011; short scale: one decillion; long scale: one thousand quintillion, or one quintilliard)

1036[]

(1000000000000000000000000000000000000; 100012; short scale: one undecillion; long scale: one sextillion)

1039[]

(1000000000000000000000000000000000000000; 100013; short scale: one duodecillion; long scale: one thousand sextillion, or one sextilliard)

1042 to 10100[]

(1000000000000000000000000000000000000000000; 100014; short scale: one tredecillion; long scale: one septillion)

10100 (one googol) to 1010100 (one googolplex)[]

(10000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000; 100033; short scale: ten duotrigintillion; long scale: ten thousand sexdecillion, or ten sexdecillard)[46]

Larger than 1010100[]

(One googolplex; 10googol; short scale: googolplex; long scale: googolplex)

See also[]

References[]

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  2. ^ There are around 130,000 letters and 199,749 total characters in Hamlet; 26 letters ×2 for capitalization, 12 for punctuation characters = 64, 64199749 ≈ 10360,783.
  3. ^ Robert Matthews. "What are the odds of shuffling a deck of cards into the right order?". Science Focus. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
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  14. ^ "there was, to our knowledge, no actual, direct estimate of numbers of cells or of neurons in the entire human brain to be cited until 2009. A reasonable approximation was provided by Williams and Herrup (1988), from the compilation of partial numbers in the literature. These authors estimated the number of neurons in the human brain at about 85 billion [...] With more recent estimates of 21–26 billion neurons in the cerebral cortex (Pelvig et al., 2008 ) and 101 billion neurons in the cerebellum (Andersen et al., 1992 ), however, the total number of neurons in the human brain would increase to over 120 billion neurons." Herculano-Houzel, Suzana (2009). "The human brain in numbers: a linearly scaled-up primate brain". Front. Hum. Neurosci. 3: 31. doi:10.3389/neuro.09.031.2009. PMC 2776484. PMID 19915731.
  15. ^ Kapitsa, Sergei P (1996). "The phenomenological theory of world population growth". Physics-Uspekhi. 39 (1): 57–71. Bibcode:1996PhyU...39...57K. doi:10.1070/pu1996v039n01abeh000127. (citing the range of 80 to 150 billion, citing K. M. Weiss, Human Biology 56637, 1984, and N. Keyfitz, Applied Mathematical Demography, New York: Wiley, 1977). C. Haub, "How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth?", Population Today 23.2), pp. 5–6, cited an estimate of 105 billion births since 50,000 BC, updated to 107 billion as of 2011 in Haub, Carl (October 2011). "How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth?". Population Reference Bureau. Archived from the original on April 24, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2013. (due to the high infant mortality in pre-modern times, close to half of this number would not have lived past infancy).
  16. ^ Elizabeth Howell, How Many Stars Are in the Milky Way? Archived 2016-05-28 at the Wayback Machine, Space.com, 21 May 2014 (citing estimates from 100 to 400 billion).
  17. ^ Hollis, Morgan (13 October 2016). "A universe of two trillion galaxies". The Royal Astronomical Society. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  18. ^ Jonathan Amos (3 September 2015). "Earth's trees number 'three trillion'". BBC. Archived from the original on 6 June 2017.
  19. ^ Xavier Gourdon (October 2004). "Computation of zeros of the Zeta function". Archived from the original on 15 January 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
  20. ^ Alexander J. Yee & Shigeru Kondo (28 Dec 2013). "12.1 Trillion Digits of Pi". Archived from the original on 2014-02-21. Retrieved 17 Feb 2014.
  21. ^ Koch, Christof. Biophysics of computation: information processing in single neurons. Oxford university press, 2004.
  22. ^ Savage, D. C. (1977). "Microbial Ecology of the Gastrointestinal Tract". Annual Review of Microbiology. 31: 107–33. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi.31.100177.000543. PMID 334036.
  23. ^ Berg, R. (1996). "The indigenous gastrointestinal microflora". Trends in Microbiology. 4 (11): 430–5. doi:10.1016/0966-842X(96)10057-3. PMID 8950812.
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  25. ^ "60th Birthday of Microelectronics Industry". Semiconductor Industry Association. 13 December 2007. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
  26. ^ Sequence A131646 Archived 2011-09-01 at the Wayback Machine in The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences
  27. ^ "Smithsonian Encyclopedia: Number of Insects Archived 2016-12-28 at the Wayback Machine". Prepared by the Department of Systematic Biology, Entomology Section, National Museum of Natural History, in cooperation with Public Inquiry Services, Smithsonian Institution. Accessed 27 December 2016. Facts about numbers of insects. Puts the number of individual insects on Earth at about 10 quintillion (1019).
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  32. ^ "How Many Transistors Have Ever Shipped? – Forbes". Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
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  35. ^ "Astronomers count the stars". BBC News. July 22, 2003. Archived from the original on August 13, 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-18. "trillions-of-earths-could-be-orbiting-300-sextillion-stars" van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Charlie Conroy (2010). "A substantial population of low-mass stars in luminous elliptical galaxies". Nature. 468 (7326): 940–942. arXiv:1009.5992. Bibcode:2010Natur.468..940V. doi:10.1038/nature09578. PMID 21124316. "How many stars?" Archived 2013-01-22 at the Wayback Machine; see mass of the observable universe
  36. ^ (sequence A007377 in the OEIS)
  37. ^ "Questions and Answers – How many atoms are in the human body?". Archived from the original on 2003-10-06.
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  39. ^ (sequence A070177 in the OEIS)
  40. ^ (sequence A035064 in the OEIS)
  41. ^ John Tromp (2010). "John's Chess Playground". Archived from the original on 2014-06-01.
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  47. ^ "Richard Eldridge".
  48. ^ Chris Caldwell, The Top Twenty: Elliptic Curve Primality Proof at The Prime Pages.
  49. ^ Chris Caldwell, The Top Twenty: Twin Primes Archived 2013-01-27 at the Wayback Machine at The Prime Pages.
  50. ^ Chris Caldwell, The Top Twenty: Sophie Germain (p) at The Prime Pages.
  51. ^ Chris Caldwell, The Top Twenty: Palindrome at The Prime Pages.
  52. ^ PrimeGrid's Primorial Prime Search Archived 2013-11-26 at the Wayback Machine
  53. ^ Chris Caldwell, The Top Twenty: Factorial primes Archived 2013-04-10 at the Wayback Machine at The Prime Pages.
  54. ^ From the third paragraph of the story: "Each book contains 410 pages; each page, 40 lines; each line, about 80 black letters." That makes 410 x 40 x 80 = 1,312,000 characters. The fifth paragraph tells us that "there are 25 orthographic symbols" including spaces and punctuation. The magnitude of the resulting number is found by taking logarithms. However, this calculation only gives a lower bound on the number of books as it does not take into account variations in the titles – the narrator does not specify a limit on the number of characters on the spine. For further discussion of this, see Bloch, William Goldbloom. The Unimaginable Mathematics of Borges' Library of Babel. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2008.
  55. ^ Chris Caldwell, The Top Twenty: Generalized Fermat Archived 2014-12-23 at the Wayback Machine at The Prime Pages.
  56. ^ Chris Caldwell, The Top Twenty: Proth at The Prime Pages.
  57. ^ a b Chris Caldwell, The Top Twenty: Largest Known Primes at The Prime Pages.
  58. ^ Chris Caldwell, Mersenne Primes: History, Theorems and Lists at The Prime Pages.
  59. ^ asantos (15 December 2007). "Googol and Googolplex by Carl Sagan" – via YouTube.
  60. ^ Zyga, Lisa "Physicists Calculate Number of Parallel Universes" Archived 2011-06-06 at the Wayback Machine, PhysOrg, 16 October 2009.

External links[]