Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 1st century AD
The 0s cover the first nine years of the Anno Domini era, which began on January 1, 1 AD and ended on December 31st, 9 AD. It is one of the two "0-to-9" decade-like timespans (along with 0s BC) that contain 9 years, and are not decades (10 years).
A census was concluded in China in 2 AD: final numbers showed a population of nearly 60 million (59,594,978 people in slightly more than 12 million households). The census is one of the most accurate surveys in Chinese history. Dionysius Exiguus assigned Jesus's birth date in 1 AD, in his anno Domini era according to at least one scholar. However, most scholars think Dionysius placed the birth of Jesus in the previous year, 1 BC. Furthermore, most modern scholars do not consider Dionysius' calculations authoritative, placing the event several years earlier (see Chronology of Jesus).
Birth of Jesus, as assigned by Dionysius Exiguus in his anno Domini era according to at least one scholar. However, most scholars think Dionysius placed the birth of Jesus in the previous year, 1 BC. Furthermore, most modern scholars do not consider Dionysius' calculations authoritative, placing the event several years earlier (see Chronology of Jesus).
Juba II of Mauretania joins Gaius Caesar in Armenia as a military advisor. It is during this period that he meets Glaphyra, a Cappadocian princess and the former wife of Alexandros of Judea, a brother of Herod Archelaus, ethnarch of Judea, and becomes enamoured of her.
Wang Mang begins a program of personal aggrandizement, restoring marquess titles to past imperial princes and introducing a pension system for retired officials. Restrictions are placed on the Emperor's mother, Consort Wei and members of the Wei Clan.
The first census is concluded in China after having begun the year before: final numbers show a population of nearly 60 million (59,594,978 people in slightly more than 12 million households). The census is one of the most accurate surveys in Chinese history.
The Chinese census shows nearly one million people living in Vietnam.
Emperor Augustus summons Tiberius to Rome, and names him his heir and future emperor. At the same time, Agrippa Postumus, the last son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, is also adopted and named as Augustus' heir.
A pact of non-aggression and friendship is signed between the Roman Empire, represented by Tiberius, and the German tribe the Cherusci, represented by their King Segimer. Arminius and Flavus, sons of Segimer, are brought into the Roman army as leaders of the auxiliary troops.
Due to a catastrophic fire in Rome, the barracks system - the vigiles, initially manned only by freedmen - was created by the PrincepsAugustus to allow quicker response to outbreaks of fire in the city.
Due to a food shortage in Rome, Augustus doubled the grain rations distributed to the people, sent away his slave retinue, and placed the senate in recess indefinitely. 
Quirinius conducted a census in Judea (according to Josephus), which resulted in a revolt in the province, led by Judas of Galilee, and supported by the Pharisee Zadok. The revolt was repressed, and the rebels were crucified, but it resulted in the birth of the Zealot movement, the members of which regarded the God of Judaism as their only master.
January – Some Chinese fear for the life of the young, ailing Emperor Ping Di as the planet Mars disappears behind the moon this month.
Candidates for government office must take civil-service examinations.
The imperial Liu clan suspect the intentions of Wang Mang and foment agrarian rebellions during the course of Ruzi Ying's reign. The first of these is led by Liu Chong, Marquess of Ang-Zong (a/k/a Marquis of An-chung), with a small force starting in May or June.
Publius Quinctilius Varus is appointed governor of Germania, charged with organizing Germania between the Rhine and Elbe rivers. He carries out a census, devises tributes and recruits soldiers, all of which create dissension among the Germanic tribes.
Zhai Yi, Governor of the Commandery of Dong (modern Puyang, Henan) declares Liu Zin, Marquess of Yang Xiang (modern Tai'an, Shandong), emperor. This proves to be the largest of the rebellions against Emperor Ruzi of Han.
Wang Mang puts down the rebellion during the winter. Zhai is captured and executed while Liu Xin escapes.
Wang Mang crushes a rebellion by Chai I, and on the winter solstice (which has been dated January 10 of the following year) officially assumes the title emperor, establishing the short-lived Xin Dynasty.
In order to increase the number of marriages, and ultimately the population, the Lex Papia Poppaea is adopted in Italy. This law prohibits celibacy and childless relationships.
Roman finances become strained following the Danubian insurrection and the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, resulting in the levying of two new taxes: five percent of inheritances, and one percent on sales.
^Roberts, John. The Oxford dictionary of the classical world. Oxford University Press. p. 799. ISBN9780192801463.
Declercq, Georges (2000). Anno Domini: The origins of the Christian Era. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols. pp. 143–147. ISBN978-2503510507.
Declercq, Georges (2002). "Dionysius Exiguus and the introduction of the Christian Era". Sacris Erudiri. Brussels: Brepols. 41: 165–246. doi:10.1484/J.SE.2.300491. ISSN0771-7776. Annotated version of a portion of Anno Domini
Dunn, James D. G. (2003). Jesus Remembered. Christianity in the Making. 1. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 324. ISBN978-0802839312.
Klingaman, William K. (1990). The First Century: Emperors, Gods and Everyman. Harper-Collins. ISBN978-0785822561.
Mommsen, Theodore (1996), A History of Rome Under the Emperors, UK: Routledge, ISBN0-415-10113-1