.com.br

.br
DotBr logo.svg
Introduced18 April 1989
TLD typeCountry code top-level domain (ccTLD)
StatusActive
RegistryRegistro.br
SponsorCGI.br
Intended useEntities connected with  Brazil
Actual useVery popular in Brazil (largest Portuguese language Web presence)[1]
Registered domains4,837,316 (18 August 2021)[2]
Registration restrictionsVarying restrictions based on which second-level name registration is within. In all cases the registrant must have either a CPF or CNPJ, documents usually granted only to Brazilian residents or recognized companies
Structure
  • Registrations at third level beneath various categories (but .com.br is still much more popular than others);
  • Second-level registrations were allowed for institutions of higher education until 2000
  • DNSSECyes
    Registry websiteregistro.br

    .br is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Brazil. It was administered by the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee (Comitê Gestor da Internet no Brasil) until 2005 when it started being administered by Brazilian Network Information Center (Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto br). A local contact is required for any registration. Registrations of domain names with Portuguese characters are also accepted.

    With the exception of universities, the second-level domain is fixed and selected from a list that defines the category. For example, site.art.br is in the art (music, folklore etc.) category, and site.org.br is in the non-governmental organization category. Institutions of tertiary education were allowed to use the ccSLD .edu.br, although some use .com.br and others (mainly public universities) use .br. There are also some other few exceptions that were allowed to use the second level domain until the end of 2000. As of April 2010, most domain registrations ignore categories and register in the .com.br domain, which has over 90% of all registered domains. The .jus.br (Judiciary), and .b.br (banks) domains have mandatory DNSSEC use.

    History[]

    Created and delegated to Brazil in 1989[3] by Jon Postel,[4] initially the domain was operated manually by Registro.br and administered by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP). Originally, only researchers and institutions to which they belonged had the interest and ability to adopt the new system and register domains under .br.

    At the time, networks prevalent in the Brazilian academic setting were the BITNET ("Because It's Time NETwork"), the HEPnet ("High Energy Physics Network") and the UUCP ("Unix-to-Unix Copy Program"). As such, even before Brazil officially connected to the Internet in 1991, the .br domain was used to identify the machines participating in networks already in use by academics.

    In 1995 the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee (Portuguese: Comitê Gestor da Internet no Brasil, or simply CGI.br) was created with an objective to coordinate the allocation of Internet addresses (IPs) and the registration of .br domain names. There were 851 domains registered with the Brazilian DNS by the beginning of 1996, thereafter experiencing rapid growth with the mass arrival of companies, Internet providers and media onto the Internet. The registration system was automated in 1997 and was developed using open source software.

    In 2005, CGI.br created his own executive arm, the Brazilian Network Information Center (Portuguese: Núcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR, or simply NIC.br),[5] which currently serves in both administrative and operational capacity for the registry.

    In 2017, accounts associated with DNS records of Brazilian banks were hacked. Kaspersky's researchers pointed out to a vulnerability in NIC.br's website and suggested its infrastructure had been compromised. NIC's director at the time, Frederico Neves, denied that NIC.br was "hacked", although NIC.br admitted the vulnerability.[6]

    Domain registry[]

    To register any domains under .br, it is necessary to enter into contact with Registro.br. Entities legally established in Brazil as a company ("pessoa jurídica") or a physical person ("profissional liberal" and "pessoas físicas") that has a contact within Brazil can register domains. Foreign companies that have a power-of-attorney legally established in Brazil can also do it by following specific rules.

    The registration of domains with special Portuguese characters (à, á, â, ã, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü and ç) is accepted since 2005.[7]

    Syntactic rules for .br domains[]

    Note: Specifically for the domain .NOM.BR, it is necessary to choose two names, i.e.: NAME1.NAME2.NOM.BR.

    Usage statistics[]

    .br is the most common Portuguese language Web site suffix,[1] surpassing all other Portuguese-speaking countries' TLDs as well as .com in popularity.

    Second-level domains[]

    Direct registration[]

    In 1991, it was decided that universities and research institutes would be allowed second-level .br domains directly. For example: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro got ufrj.br; University of São Paulo got usp.br; National Institute for Space Research got inpe.br; and so on.[8]

    In late 2000, the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee (CGI.br) reported abuse in this system, and called for all institutions directly under .br to be moved to .edu.br – so, for example, ufrj.br would become ufrj.edu.br. During a meeting in early 2001, however, the Committee decided it would be of public interest to not move every second-level domain as to avoid confusion, but instead established rules regarding their registration:[9]

    As of August 2021, Registro.br reports 1207 domains registered directly under .br.[2]

    Predefined domains[]

    As of August 2021, there are 140 different second-level domains of .br under which custom domains can be registered, and they are divided into six categories: "Generic", "Cities", "Universities", "Professionals", "Natural persons" and "Legal persons".[10] They are the following:

    "Generic" second-level .br domains
    Domain Intended use
    APP.br Apps
    ART.br Arts: music, painting, folklore
    COM.br Commercial activities
    DEV.br Developers and development platforms
    ECO.br Eco- or environment focused activities
    EMP.br Small and micro-enterprises
    LOG.br Transport and logistics
    NET.br Commercial activities
    ONG.br Non-governmental organizations
    SEG.br Security
    TEC.br Technology
    "Universities" second-level .br domains
    Domain Intended use
    EDU.br Higher education institutions
    "Natural persons" second-level .br domains
    Domain Intended use
    BLOG.br Web logs
    FLOG.br Photo logs
    NOM.br Natural persons
    VLOG.br Video logs
    WIKI.br Wiki-like pages
    "Legal persons" second-level .br domains
    Unrestricted
    Domain Intended use
    AGR.br Agriculture- or farm-related companies
    ESP.br Sport in general
    ETC.br Companies that do not fit into other categories
    FAR.br Pharmacies and drugstores
    IMB.br Real estate agencies
    IND.br Industries
    INF.br Media and information (radios, newspapers, libraries, ...)
    RADIO.br "Companies wishing to transmit audio through the network"
    REC.br Recreational activities, games
    SRV.br Work for hire
    TMP.br Temporary events, such as fairs and expos
    TUR.br Tourism-related companies
    TV.br "Internet transmission of sounds and images"
    Restricted
    Domain Intended use
    AM.br Radio companies
    COOP.br Cooperatives
    FM.br Radio companies
    G12.br Primary or secondary schools (K–12 equivalent)
    GOV.br Federal government institutions
    MIL.br Brazilian Armed Forces
    ORG.br Not-for-profit non-governmental organizations
    PSI.br Internet service providers
    DNSSEC required
    Domain Intended use
    B.br Banks
    DEF.br Public defenders
    JUS.br Judiciary institutions
    LEG.br Legislative institutions
    MP.br Public Ministry institutions
    TC.br Tribunal de Contas da União
    "Professionals" second-level .br domains
    Domain Intended use
    ADM.br Administrators
    ADV.br Lawyers
    ARQ.br Architecture
    ATO.br Actors
    BIB.br Librarians and library scientists
    BIO.br Biologists
    BMD.br Biomedical scientists
    CIM.br Realtors
    CNG.br Scenographers
    CNT.br Accountants
    COZ.br Gastronomists
    DES.br Designers and illustrators
    DET.br Detectives and private investigator
    ECN.br Economists
    ENF.br Nurses
    ENG.br Engineers
    ETI.br IT professionals
    FND.br Speech–language pathologist
    FOT.br Photographers
    FST.br Physical therapistss
    GEO.br Geologists
    GGF.br Geography professionals
    JOR.br Journalists
    LEL.br Auctioneers
    MAT.br Mathematicians and statisticians
    MED.br Medical doctors
    MUS.br Musicians
    NOT.br Notaries
    NTR.br Nutritionists
    ODO.br Dentists
    PPG.br Publicists and marketeers
    PRO.br Teachers and professors
    PSC.br Psychologists
    QSL.br Amateur radio operators
    REP.br Commercial representatives
    SLG.br Sociologists
    TAXI.br Taxi drivers
    TEO.br Theologists
    TRD.br Translators
    VET.br Veterinarians
    ZLG.br Zoologists
    "Cities" second-level .br domains
    Domain Intended use
    9GUACU.br Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro
    ABC.br ABC Region, São Paulo
    AJU.br Aracaju, Sergipe
    ANANI.br Ananindeua, Pará
    APARECIDA.br Aparecida, São Paulo
    BARUERI.br Barueri, São Paulo
    BELEM.br Belém, Pará
    BHZ.br Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais
    BOAVISTA.br Boa Vista, Roraima
    BSB.br Brasília, Federal District
    CAMPINAGRANDE.br Campina Grande, Paraíba
    CAMPINAS.br Campinas, São Paulo
    CAXIAS.br Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro[11]
    CONTAGEM.br Contagem, Minas Gerais
    CUIABA.br Cuiabá, Mato Grosso
    CURITIBA.br Curitiba, Paraná
    FEIRA.br Feira de Santana, Bahia
    FLORIPA.br Florianópolis, Santa Catarina
    FORTAL.br Fortaleza, Ceará
    FOZ.br Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná
    GOIANIA.br Goiânia, Goiás
    GRU.br Guarulhos, São Paulo
    JAB.br Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco
    JAMPA.br João Pessoa, Paraíba
    JDF.br Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais
    JOINVILLE.br Joinville, Santa Catarina
    LONDRINA.br Londrina, Paraná
    MACAPA.br Macapá, Amapá
    MACEIO.br Maceió, Alagoas
    MANAUS.br Manaus, Amazonas
    MARINGA.br Maringá, Paraná
    MORENA.br Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul
    NATAL.br Natal, Rio Grande do Norte
    NITEROI.br Niterói, Rio de Janeiro
    OSASCO.br Osasco, São Paulo
    PALMAS.br Palmas, Tocantins
    POA.br Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul
    PVH.br Porto Velho, Rondônia
    RECIFE.br Recife, Pernambuco
    RIBEIRAO.br Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo[12]
    RIO.br Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro
    RIOBRANCO.br Rio Branco, Acre
    RIOPRETO.br São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo
    SALVADOR.br Salvador, Bahia
    SAMPA.br São Paulo, São Paulo
    SANTAMARIA.br Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul
    SANTOANDRE.br Santo André, São Paulo
    SAOBERNARDO.br São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo
    SAOGONCA.br São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro
    SJC.br São José dos Campos, São Paulo
    SLZ.br São Luís, Maranhão
    SOROCABA.br Sorocaba, São Paulo
    THE.br Teresina, Piauí
    UDI.br Uberlândia, Minas Gerais
    VIX.br Vitória, Espírito Santo

    Special second-level domains[]

    From 2000 until 2009, during election cycles, electoral candidates could register domains under CAN.br, with the format [name][number].can.br – where the name is the registered candidate name, and the number is the identification number for that candidate in the election (related to the party's identification number).[13][14] The second-level domain was in a category of its own, called "natural persons, special".[15]

    As an example, during the 2004 elections for mayor of Aracaju:[16]

    Domains were free for registered candidates. Additionally, domains were automatically cancelled at the end of the first round if the candidate lost, and remaining ones were cancelled after the end of the second round.[13]

    No new .can.br domains have been registered since 2009.[17]

    Agencies[]

    There are multiple agencies registered directly under .br, as second-level domains, that aren't higher education or research institutions. The following list might not be exhaustive:

    Agencies on second-level .br domains
    Domain Domain meaning Description
    CGI.br Acronym for "Comitê Gestor da Internet" (lit.'Internet Administration Committee') The Committee establishes strategic directives related to the use and development of the internet in Brazil, directives for the registration of domain names, IP allocation and administration regarding the .br TLD
    NIC.br Acronym for Network Information Center Created to implement decisions and projects of the Committee (CGI.br)
    IX.br
    PTT.br (old)
    IX: Acronym for Internet eXchange
    PTT: Acronym for "Ponto de Troca de Tráfego" (lit.'Traffic Exchange Point')
    Handles the internet exchange point system of Brazil
    REGISTRO.br Portuguese for "registration" .br registry
    CETIC.br Acronym for "CEntro de Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação" (lit.'Center of Information and Communications Technology') Officially called "Centro Regional de Estudos para o Desenvolvimento da Sociedade da Informação", it monitors the adoption of information and communications technology in Brazil
    CEPTRO.br Acronym for "Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas em Tecnologia de Redes e Operações" (lit.'Center for Studies and Research in Network Technology and Operations') Responsible for initiatives and projects that support or perfect the internet infrastructure in Brazil
    CERT.br Acronym for Computer Emergency Response Team Has the mission to increase the security levels and incident handling capabilities regarding networks conected to Brazil's internet
    CEWEB.br Acronym for "Centro de Estudos sobre Tecnologias Web" (lit.'Center for Studies on Web Technologies') Has the mission to enable the participation of the Brazilian community in the global development of the web
    W3C.br W3C Brazilian branch of the World Wide Web Consortium
    NTP.br Acronym for Network Time Protocol Provides the legal, standard time for Brazil
    IPV6.br IPv6 Promote and disseminate IPv6 usage in Brazil
    ANTISPAM.br Anti-spam Has the mission to inform users and network administrators about spam, its implications and forms of protection and combat
    INTERNETSEGURA.br Portuguese for "Safe Internet" Has the mission to incentivize the safe use of the internet
    ZAPPIENS.br Named after Portugal's now defunct Zappiens.pt, managed by the FCCN Has the mission to be a free service for the aggregation and distribution of audiovisual scientific, educational, artistic and cultural content in Portuguese

    Most of these agencies are subsidiaries of CGI.br and, as such, they follow a similar corporate identity. The "logos" are combinations of the names of the agencies with the logo for .br, all of which are simply typed out with Brandon Schoech (Tepid Monkey)'s freeware font "Qhytsdakx":

    Networks[]

    There are multiple networks registered directly under .br, usually of academic nature. Again, this list may not be exhaustive:

    Networks on second-level .br domains
    Domain Domain meaning Description
    RNP.br Acronym for "Rede Nacional de ensino e Pesquisa" (lit.'National Network of Education and Research') An academic backbone of Brazilian internet
    REDERIO.br "Rede Rio" (lit.'Rio Network') Academic network for the state of Rio de Janeiro
    REDNESP.br
    ANSP.br (old)
    Acronym for "Research and EDucation NEtwork at São Paulo" Academic network for the state of São Paulo
    TCHE.br "Rede Tchê" (lit.'Tchê Network'), named after the interjection common in the South of Brazil, tchê Academic network of the South Region of Brazil

    See also[]

    References[]

    1. ^ a b As of 18 August 2021, Google showed 2.76 billion pages for site: .br, 351 million for site: .pt (Portugal) and 6.16 million for site: .ao (Angola). Portuguese pages in the .com domain were 2.19 billion.
    2. ^ a b "Estatísticas" [Statistics]. Registro.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 18 August 2021.
    3. ^ IANA - Informações sobre a delegação do .br
    4. ^ NIC.br - CGI.br comemora os 20 anos do ".br"
    5. ^ "Comunicado ao Público". CGI.br. 14 February 2006. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
    6. ^ Andy Greenberg (4 April 2017). "How Hackers Hijacked a Bank's Entire Online Operation". Wired. Kaspersky believes the attackers compromised NIC.br (...) Kaspersky points to a January blog post from NIC.br that admitted to a vulnerability in its website (...) [Frederico Neves] denied that NIC.br had been "hacked." But he conceded that accounts may have been altered
    7. ^ a b Registro.br - Tips and Rules
    8. ^ Getschko, Demi (1 April 2006). "Nomes de domínio na internet". Pesquisa sobre o uso das tecnologias da informação e da comunicação 2005 (in Portuguese). São Paulo: CGI.br. pp. 21–24. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
    9. ^ "Nota de Esclarecimento sobre utilização do DPN .edu". NIC.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 18 August 2021.
    10. ^ "Categorias de domínios .br" [Categories of .br domains]. Registro.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 17 August 2021.
    11. ^ "Duque de Caxias terá domínios 'caxias.br'" [Duque de Caxias will have 'caxias.br' domains]. NIC.br (in Portuguese). 1 September 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
    12. ^ Santos, Leonardo (22 September 2017). "Ribeirão Preto ganha próprio domínio de internet" [Ribeirão Preto gets its own internet domain]. NIC.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 18 August 2021.
    13. ^ a b Januário, Larissa (24 March 2008). "Eleições 2008: candidatos terão domínio can.br" [2008 Elections: candidates will have can.br domain]. NIC.br (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 19 August 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
    14. ^ "Ata da Reunião de 28 de fevereiro de 2002" (in Portuguese). 28 February 2002. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
    15. ^ "Resolução CGI.br/RES/2008/008/P". CGI.br (in Portuguese). 28 November 2008. Archived from the original on 21 April 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
    16. ^ Franciscato, Carlos Eduardo (11 September 2004). "Como a Internet está ajudando eleitores e candidatos". Infonet (in Portuguese). Retrieved 18 August 2021.
    17. ^ "can.br - 31/12/1995 a 17/08/2021". Registro.br (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 19 August 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.

    External links[]