.30 NATO

7.62×51mm NATO
7,62mm G3 oder MG3.jpg
Unfired 7.62×51mm NATO tracer round (B) next to three recovered bullets, showing rifling marks (A)
TypeRifle
Place of originUnited States
Service history
In service1954–present
Used byNATO and others
WarsVietnam War, Six-Day War, Yom Kippur War, Iran–Iraq War, Falklands War, The Troubles, Gulf War, War in Afghanistan, Iraq War, Libyan Civil War, Syrian Civil War, Yemeni Civil War (2015–present), Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, among other conflicts
Specifications
Parent caseT-65 experimental cartridge series (derived from the .300 Savage)
Case typeRimless, bottleneck
Bullet diameter0.308 in (7.82 mm)
Land diameter0.300 (7.62 mm)
Neck diameter0.345 in (8.8 mm)
Shoulder diameter0.454 in (11.5 mm)
Base diameter0.470 in (11.9 mm)
Rim diameter0.473 in (12.0 mm)
Rim thickness0.050 in (1.3 mm)
Case length2.015 in (51.2 mm)
Overall length2.800 in (71.1 mm)
Rifling twist1 in 12 in (304.8 mm)
Primer typeBerdan or Large rifle
Maximum pressure (NATO EPVAT)60,191 psi (415.00 MPa)
Ballistic performance
Bullet mass/type Velocity Energy
147 gr (10 g) M80 FMJ 2,800 ft/s (850 m/s) 2,559 ft⋅lbf (3,470 J)
175 gr (11 g) M118 long range BTHP 2,600 ft/s (790 m/s) 2,627 ft⋅lbf (3,562 J)
Test barrel length: 22 in (559 mm) (M80)
24 in (610 mm) (M118 Long Range)
Source(s): M80: TM 9-1005-298-12, 7 August 1969, TM 9-1005-224-10, July 1985,[1][2]
M118 Long Range: U.S. Armament[3][4]

The 7.62×51mm NATO (official NATO nomenclature 7.62 NATO) is a rimless, bottlenecked rifle cartridge. It is a standard for small arms among NATO countries.

First developed in the 1950s, the cartridge had first been introduced in U.S. service for the M14 rifle and M60 machine gun. Many other firearms that use the 7.62×51mm NATO remain in service (especially various marksman/sniper rifles, medium machine guns/general-purpose machine guns such as the M240, and others).

The cartridge is used by military personnel, on mounted and crew-served weapons that are mounted to vehicles, aircraft and ships.

Development[]

Velocity comparison between the 7.62×51mm NATO, .30-06 Springfield, and .300 Winchester Magnum for common bullet weights
.50 BMG, .300 Winchester Magnum, 7.62 NATO, 7.62×39mm, 5.56 NATO, and .22 LR

Work that would eventually develop the 7.62×51mm NATO started just after World War I when the large, powerful .30-06 Springfield cartridge proved difficult to adapt to semi-automatic rifles. A less powerful cartridge would allow a lighter firing mechanism. At the time the most promising design was the .276 Pedersen. When it was eventually demonstrated that the .30-06 Springfield was suitable for semi-automatic rifles, the .276 Pedersen was dropped.

Thus when war appeared to be looming again, only a couple of decades later, the .30-06 Springfield was the only round available, and the M1 Garand provided U.S. troops with greater firepower than their bolt action-armed opponents. The Garand performed so well that the U.S. saw little need to replace it during World War II, and the .30-06 Springfield served well beyond the Korean War and into the mid-1950s. The .30-06 Springfield was officially replaced by the 7.62 NATO M14 in 1957.

During the 1940s and early 1950s, several experiments were carried out to improve the M1 Garand semi-automatic rifle. One of the most common complaints was the limited-capacity, eight-round en-bloc clip, and many experimental designs modified the weapon with a detachable box magazine. Springfield Armory's T20 rifle was a fully automatic version.[5] Though not adopted, experience with a fully-automatic Garand laid the groundwork for its replacement. The test program continued for several years, including both the original .30-06 Springfield round and experimental cartridges.

T65 series experimental cartridges[]

During the 1940s, the .300 Savage became the basis for experiments on behalf of the U.S. Military that resulted in the development of the T65 series of experimental cartridges. The original experimental case design by the Frankford Arsenal was designated the T65 and was similar to the .300 Savage case, but with less taper. The experimental cases were made from standard .30-06 Springfield cases which gave a little less capacity than standard .300 Savage cases because the Frankford Arsenal cases had slightly thicker case walls. The later T65 iterations were lengthened compared to the original T65 case and provided a ballistic performance roughly equal to the U.S. military .30-06 Springfield service cartridge. Over forty years of technical progress in the field of propellants allowed for similar service cartridge performance – firing a 147 grains (9.53 g) bullet at 2,750 ft/s (838 m/s) with 2,468 ft⋅lbf (3,346 J) muzzle energy – from a significantly shorter, smaller case with less case capacity.[6][7] The eventual result of this competition was the T44 rifle.

Designation Case Description Manufacturer Metric
T65 T65 case (47 mm) Steel jacket lead core 150-grain flat base bullet Frankford Arsenal 7.62×47mm
T65E1 FAT1 case (49 mm) Steel jacket lead core Frankford Arsenal 7.62×49mm
T65E2 FAT1E1 (49 mm – 30° shoulder) Steel jacket lead core Frankford Arsenal 7.62×49mm
T65E3 FAT1E3 (51 mm – 20° shoulder) Steel jacket lead core Frankford Arsenal 7.62×51mm
T65E4 FAT1E3 (51 mm – 20° shoulder) Steel jacket lead core 145-grain boat-tail bullet with a No. 10 ogive point Frankford Arsenal 7.62×51mm
T65E5 FAT1E3 (51 mm – 20° shoulder) Steel jacket lead core boat-tail bullet Frankford Arsenal 7.62×51mm

When the United States developed the T65 cartridge, the British military took a different route. They had spent considerable time and effort developing the intermediate-power .280 British (7 mm) cartridge with an eye towards controllable fully automatic fire. The U.S. held to its desire not to reduce the effectiveness of individual aimed shots. The American philosophy was to use automatic fire for emergencies only and continue to use semi-automatic fire the majority of the time. After considerable debate, the Canadian Army announced they would be happy to use the .280 but only if the U.S. did as well. It was clear the U.S. was not going to use the .280 British. The British did start introducing the .280 British along with the bull-pup Rifle No. 9, but the process was stopped in the interests of harmonization across NATO. The T65E5 (7.62×51mm) was chosen as NATO's standard cartridge in 1954.

Winchester saw a market for a civilian model of the late T65 series designs and introduced it in 1952, two years prior to the NATO adoption of the T65E5 experimental cartridge iteration under the 7.62×51mm NATO designation in 1954. Winchester branded the cartridge and introduced it to the commercial hunting market as the .308 Winchester. The dimensions of .308 Winchester are almost the same as 7.62×51mm NATO. The chamber of the former has a marginally shorter headspace and thinner case walls than the latter due to changed specifications between 1952 and 1954. This allows 7.62×51mm NATO ammunition to feed reliably in rifles chambered for .308 Winchester, but can cause .308 Winchester ammunition cases to rupture when fired in rifles chambered for 7.62×51mm NATO.

Adoption in battle rifles[]

Service rifle cartridges loaded with projectiles: (left to right) 7.62×54mmR, 7.62×51mm NATO, 7.62×39mm, 5.56×45mm NATO, 5.45×39mm

The T44 rifle was adopted as the M14 rifle in 1957. Around the same time Britain and Canada adopted the Belgian FN FAL (L1A1 SLR British) as the L1 followed by the West German army designated as the G1. The Germans soon transitioned to a modified version of the Spanish CETME rifle by Heckler & Koch that was adopted as the G3. With all of these firearms, it was clear that the 7.62×51mm NATO could not be fired controllably in fully automatic because of recoil. Both the M14 and FAL were later modified to limit fully automatic selection through semi-automatic versions or selector locks. Efforts were also made to improve control with bipods or heavier barrels.

While this was going on, the U.S. Project SALVO concluded that a burst of four rounds into a 20-inch (51 cm) circle would cause twice the number of casualties as a fully automatic burst by one of these rifles, regardless of the size of the round. They suggested using a much smaller, .22 caliber, cartridge with two bullets per cartridge (a duplex load), while other researchers investigated the promising flechette rounds that were lighter but offered better penetration than even the .30-06.

When the M14 arrived in Vietnam, it was found to have a few disadvantages. The rifle's overall length was not well suited for jungle warfare. Also, the weight of 7.62×51mm NATO cartridges limited the total amount of ammunition that could be carried in comparison with the 7.62×39mm cartridge of the Type 56 and AK-47 rifles, with which the Vietcong and North Vietnamese Army soldiers were equipped. In addition, the originally issued wooden-stocked versions of the M14 were susceptible to warping from moisture in tropical environments, producing "wandering zeroes" and other accuracy problems, which caused the adoption of fiberglass stocks.

Fighting between the big-round and small-round groups reached a peak in the early 1960s, when test after test showed the .223 Remington (M193 5.56×45mm) cartridge fired from the AR-15 allowed an eight-soldier unit to outgun an 11-soldier unit armed with M14s at ranges closer than 300 meters. U.S. troops were able to carry more than twice as much 5.56×45mm ammunition as 7.62×51mm NATO for the same weight, which allowed them an advantage against a typical NVA unit armed with Type 56-1s.

Rifle Cartridge Cartridge weight Weight of loaded magazine Max. 10 kilogram ammo load
M14 (1959) 7.62×51mm NATO 393 gr (25.4 g) 20 rd mag at 0.75 kg 13 mags at 9.75 kg for 260 rds [8]
M16 (1962) .223 Remington (M193 5.56×45mm) 183 gr (11.8 g) 20 rd mag at 0.32 kg 31 mags at 9.93 kg for 620 rds [8]
AK-47 (1949) 7.62×39mm 252 gr (16.3 g) 30 rd mag at 0.82 kg 12 mags at 9.2 kg for 360 rds [8]

In 1964, the U.S. Army started replacing their M14s with M16s, incurring another series of complaints from the British. Regardless of the M14 having disadvantages in jungle warfare, 7.62×51mm NATO rifles stayed in military service around the world due to several factors. The 7.62×51mm NATO has proved much more effective than 5.56×45mm at long ranges, and has since found popularity as a sniping round. For instance, M14 variants such as the Mk 14 Enhanced Battle Rifle and M25 Sniper Rifle were utilized in the United States military as designated marksman and sniper rifles. Shorter, easier-to-handle 7.62mm rifles like the Heckler & Koch G3 stayed in service due to their accuracy, range, cartridge effectiveness and reliability.

Specialized use[]

M13 links reassembled to previously by a general-purpose machine gun fired 7.62×51mm NATO cartridge cases

Sniper and designated marksman rifles[]

Specialized loadings were created for 7.62×51mm NATO-chambered sniper rifles. They used heavier and more streamlined bullets that had a higher ballistic coefficient than standard ball rounds, meaning they shed velocity at longer ranges more gradually. Loss of velocity is important for accurate long-range shots because dropping from supersonic to transonic speeds disturbs the flight of the bullet and adversely affects accuracy. The standard M80 ball round weighs 147 gr and from a M14 rifle and M60 machine gun has a muzzle velocity 200 ft/s (61 m/s) faster than the M118LR 175 gr sniping round. However, the M80 drops to subsonic velocity around 900 m (984 yd), while the initially slower M118LR is supersonic out to 1,000 m (1,094 yd) due to its low-drag bullet.[9]

The 7.62×51mm NATO round remains in use in designated marksman rifles such as the Heckler & Koch HK417, SIG 716, FN SCAR, L129A1, and Colt Canada C20 DMR to take advantage of the effective range and accuracy potential compared with intermediate rifle rounds. Designated marksman rifles have to be effective, in terms of hit rates and terminal ballistics, at application ranges exceeding those of ordinary assault rifles and battle rifles, but do not require the extended-range performance of a dedicated sniper rifle. For this, depending on the military, sometimes specialized 7.62×51mm NATO ammunition is issued to designated marksman.[10]

General-purpose machine guns[]

The 7.62×51mm NATO round nevertheless met the designers' demands for fully automatic reliability with a full-power round. It remained the main machine gun round for almost all NATO forces well into the 1990s, even being used in adapted versions of older .30-06 Springfield machine guns such as the Browning M1919A4 from the WWII era. The .303 British Bren gun was also subject to conversion to fire the 7.62×51mm NATO round, the converted weapon being reclassified as the L4 Light machine gun. These have been replaced to a considerable extent in the light machine gun role by 5.56×45mm weapons, such as the widespread use of the M249 SAW, but the 7.62×51mm NATO fully powered cartridge is still the standard chambering for the minigun machine gun and general-purpose machine guns such as the M60E4, FN MAG/M240, HK21, MG3, AA-52, Vektor SS-77, UKM-2000 and MG5 and flexible mountings such as helicopters, jeeps, and tanks. It is also commonly found in coaxial mount applications such as found in parallel with the main gun on tanks. The characteristics of 7.62 mm bullet types were not only researched in the 20st century, but were also subject to 21st century ballistic studies.[11][12]

Post-2010 developments[]

The U.S. Army developed an improved version of the M80 ball 7.62mm round, designated the M80A1. The M80A1 incorporates changes found in the M855A1 5.56 mm round. Like the M855A1, the M80A1 has better hard-target penetration, more consistent performance against soft targets, and significantly increased distances of these effects over the M80. The bullet is redesigned with a copper jacket and exposed hardened steel penetrator, eliminating 114.5 grains (7.4 g) of lead with production of each M80A1 projectile.[13] The M80A1 began fielding in September 2014.[14] The Army plans to replace both the M80A1 Enhanced Performance Round and M993 Armor Piercing round with the XM1158 Advanced Armor Piercing Round beginning in 2020.[15]

The U.S. Special Operations Command plans to begin fielding of the 6.5mm Creedmoor cartridge in early 2019 to replace the 7.62×51mm NATO round in semi-automatic sniper rifles. Tests determined that compared to the 7.62×51mm NATO (M118LR long-range 7.62×51mm NATO load), the 6.5mm Creedmoor doubles hit probability at 1,000 m (1,094 yd), increases effective range by nearly half, reduces wind drift by a third and has less recoil. The same rifles can use the new cartridge, as their similar dimensions allow the same magazines to be used and the weapon only requires a barrel change.[16][17]

Cartridge dimensions[]

Example of a ballistic table for a given 7.62×51mm NATO load. Bullet drop and wind drift are shown both in mil and moa.

The 7.62×51mm NATO has 3.38 ml (52.0 grains) cartridge case capacity. The exterior shape of the case was designed to promote reliable case feeding and extraction in bolt action rifles and machine guns alike, under extreme conditions.

7.62x51 NATO dimensions.png

7.62×51mm NATO cartridge dimensions. All dimensions in millimeters (mm).[18]

Americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2 = 20 degrees. The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 305 mm (1 in 12 in), 4 grooves, Ø lands = 7.62 mm, Ø grooves = 7.82 mm, land width = 4.47 mm. The primer type can be Berdan or Boxer Large Rifle.[19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) research papers on the influence of Berdan and Boxer primer spit-hole diameter on 7.62-mm cartridge performance concluded the primary advantage of a Berdan primer is that they are less expensive than a Boxer primer due to their reduced complexity. The ARL found there is little variation in the pressure-time curves between the different spit-hole configurations. Doubling the area of the spit-hole or incorporating a Berdan style spit-hole with the same total area as a standard M80 round showed minimal effects on the overall performance. The standard Boxer primed M80 showed the best results. All measured differences are within one standard deviation, and are not significant.[20][21]

According to the official NATO EPVAT NAAG-LG/3-SG/1 rulings the 7.62×51mm NATO can handle up to 415.00 MPa (60,191 psi) Pmax piezo pressure. The proof round pressure requirement is 521.30 MPa (75,608 psi) piezo pressure recorded in a NATO design EPVAT barrel with a Kistler 6215 transducer, HPI GP6 transducer or by equipment to C.I.P. requirements.[22]

The 7.62×51mm NATO cartridge approaches the ballistic performance of the original U.S. military .30-06 Springfield M1906 service cartridge. Modern propellants allowed for similar performance from a smaller case with less case capacity, a case that requires less brass and yields a shorter cartridge. This shorter cartridge allows a slight reduction in the size and weight of firearms that chamber it, and better cycling in automatic and semi-automatic rifles. The .30-06 Springfield M1906 round weighed 26.1 grams (403 gr), and the 7.62×51mm NATO M80 round weighs 25.4 grams (392 gr).[23]

7.62×51mm NATO vs. .308 Winchester[]

Although not identical, the military 7.62×51mm NATO and the commercial .308 Winchester cartridges are similar enough that they can be loaded into rifles chambered for the other round, but the .308 Winchester cartridges are typically loaded to higher pressures than 7.62×51mm NATO service cartridges.[24] Even though the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI) does not consider it unsafe to fire the commercial .308 Winchester rounds in weapons chambered for the military 7.62×51mm NATO round, there is significant discussion about compatible chambers and muzzle pressures between the two cartridges based on powder loads, chamber dimensions and wall thicknesses in the web area of the military compared to commercial cartridge cases.[25][26] As the chambers differ accordingly the head space gauges used for the two chamberings differ.[27]

Military cartridge types[]

7.62mm, NATO, orange-tipped tracer ammunition, M62: 142-grain (9.2 g) tracer cartridge
The 7.62mm M118 long range cartridge

Australia[]

Belgium[]

Germany[]

The IMI 7.62×51mm long range match was optimized for the M24 SWS in use by the Israel Defense Forces. The combined sniper weapon system achieves accuracy of 0.5 minute of arc.

Israel[]

United Kingdom[]

United States[]

Linked belts of Lake City 7.62 mm M80 ball ammunition

Department of Defense Identification Codes (DODIC)[]

M13 links connect up to 200 7.62×51mm NATO rounds (4 × ball : 1 tracer) contained in an M19A1 ammunition box used to feed a M240G machine gun

This four-character alphanumeric code is used by the US Armed Forces and NATO to identify the cartridge, the cartridge type, and the packing method (cartons, clips, link belt, or bulk) used.

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ TM 9-1005-298-12, 7 August 1969
  2. ^ TM 9-1005-224-10, July 1985, US Army manual: Operator's Manual For M60, M122, M60D
  3. ^ Long range sniper ammunition, U.S. Armor, archived from the original on 2009-01-27
  4. ^ "History of the M118 Ammunition". Archived from the original on 2019-02-12. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  5. ^ Light Rifle, Part IV: The M1 Garand Learns To Rock And Roll, by Nathaniel F., TFB.com, 14 movember 2015
  6. ^ 30 LIGHT RIFLE (T-65)
  7. ^ An assortment of US Cal .30 Light Rifle (Pre-7.62 NATO) cartridges
  8. ^ a b c Dockery, Kevin (2007). Future Weapons. New York, NY, USA: Berkley Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-425-21215-8.
  9. ^ Anthony G. Williams. "Cartridges for Long-Range Sniping Rifles". quarryhs.co.uk. Archived from the original on 27 May 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  10. ^ Penetration tech: BAE Systems' new ammo for Our Boys and Girls
  11. ^ "AD 815788 - Aerodynamic characteristics of the 7.62 mm NATO Ammunition M-59, M-80, M-61, M-62" (PDF). Retrieved 2021-07-13.
  12. ^ "A Review of Flight Dynamic Simulation Model of Missiles, Hellenic Army Academy 2008" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-12-15. Retrieved 2019-01-26.
  13. ^ a b Picatinny ammo goes from regular to unleaded Archived 2013-07-06 at the Wayback Machine – Army.mil, 1 July 2013
  14. ^ M80A1 7.62 mm Cartridge Archived 2015-01-23 at the Wayback Machine - Office of the Director, Operational Test & Evaluation. 2014
  15. ^ US Army’s XM1158 Advanced Armor Piercing Round Set to Replace M80A1 EPR. The Firearm Blog. 19 March 2020.
  16. ^ SOCOM snipers will ditch their bullets for this new round next year Archived 2018-05-14 at the Wayback Machine. Military Times. 8 May 2018.
  17. ^ Homeland Security shooters are dumping .308 for this long-range round Archived 2018-05-14 at the Wayback Machine. Military Times. 7 May 2018.
  18. ^ U.S. Drawing of the T65E3 cartridge case from December 1954
  19. ^ [http://www.dstan.mod.uk/standards/defstans/05/101/01000100.pdf NATO STANDARD AEP-97 MULTI-CALIBRE MANUAL OF PROOF AND INSPECTION (M-CMOPI) FOR NATO SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION|date=2021-07-10}}
  20. ^ Influence of Berdan and Boxer Primer Spit-Hole Diameter on 7.62-mm Cartridge Performance, John J. Ritter Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL, February 2014
  21. ^ Influence of Berdan and Boxer Primer Spit-Hole Diameter on 7.62-mm Cartridge Performance, John J. Ritter Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL, June 2014
  22. ^ Proof of Ordnance, Munitions, Armour and Explosives, Ministry of Defence Defence Standard 05-101 Part 1 Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ "How Much Does Your Ammo Weigh? - The Firearm Blog". 9 April 2016. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  24. ^ SAAMI Velocity and Piezoelectric Transducer Pressure: Centerfire Rifle, 2013, p. 9, "VELOCITY AND PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCER PRESSURE: CENTERFIRE RIFLE" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-02. Retrieved 2016-11-10.
  25. ^ SAAMI Unsafe Arms and Ammunition Combinations
  26. ^ 7.62×51mm NATO or .308 Winchester?
  27. ^ NATO Chamber Headspace GagesAvailable for 5.56 NATO and 7.62 NATO
  28. ^ 7.62x51mm NATO cartridges by FN HERSTAL
  29. ^ a b c d FN Herstal technical data 762x51mm
  30. ^ Technische Richtlinie Ballistische Schutzwesten revision of 2009
  31. ^ "ngsdienst!A2-2090/0-0-1 Zentralrichtlinie Schießsicherheit DM41 danger zone length, page 93" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-05-15. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
  32. ^ Martin L. Fackler (1989). "Wounding patterns of military rifle bullets". International Defense Review (1/1989): 59–64.
  33. ^ "Zentralrichtlinie Schießsicherheit DM111 danger zone length, page 93" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-05-15. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
  34. ^ A Way Forward in Contemporary Understanding of the 1899 Hague Declaration on Expanding Bullets Archived 2019-03-08 at the Wayback Machine - SAdefensejournal.com, 7 October 2013
  35. ^ "7,62 mm x 51 Ball DM111 A2 Soft core data sheet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-11-10. Retrieved 2017-11-10.
  36. ^ MEN small arms ammunition, page 8
  37. ^ "Zentralrichtlinie Schießsicherheit DM151 danger zone length, page 93" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-05-15. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
  38. ^ IMI Systems Small caliber ammunition Archived 2017-11-14 at the Wayback Machine and product brochure Archived 2017-11-14 at the Wayback Machine, IMI Systems website. Accessed: 2017-11-13.
  39. ^ An article about IDF snipers Archived 2017-11-14 at the Wayback Machine, Walla!News. See last image (in Hebrew), it reads "groups of 12 cm in a range of 800 meters".
  40. ^ a b c "House of Commons Hansard Debates for 26 Jul 1993". publications.parliament.uk.
  41. ^ "7.62mm NATO Cartridge, SA, Ball, 7.62mm L2A2 & 7.62 x 51mm". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  42. ^ "Report of the Bloody Sunday Inquiry Volume I" (PDF). Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  43. ^ a b Home Office (2017). "Body Armour Standard (2017)" (PDF). Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  44. ^ "7.62mm NATO Cartridge, SA, Tracer, 7.62mm L5A3 & 7.62 x 51mm". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  45. ^ "Ammunition: Iraq - Monday 21 May 2007 - Hansard - UK Parliament". hansard.parliament.uk.
  46. ^ a b c http://quarryhs.co.uk/BAEammo16.pdf
  47. ^ https://www.facebook.com/1453320798223501/photos/pcb.2443909582497946/2443900609165510/?type=3&theater
  48. ^ https://www.baesystems.com/en-uk/product/762mm-ball
  49. ^ "New Ammo for British Troops: UK Develops More Effective 5.56mm and 7.62mm Ammunition -". The Firearm Blog. 2016-08-23. Retrieved 2021-08-11.
  50. ^ Penetration tech: BAE Systems' new ammo for Our Boys and Girls
  51. ^ TM 9-1005-298-12, 7 August 1969, 7.62 Millimeter Ammunition Weights Dimensions, and Ballistic Data.
  52. ^ TM 9-1005-298-12, 7 August 1969, 7.62 Millimeter Ammunition Weights Dimensions, and Ballistic Data.
  53. ^ TM 9-1005-298-12, 7 August 1969, 7.62 Millimeter Ammunition Weights Dimensions, and Ballistic Data.
  54. ^ "The Case for a General-Purpose Rifle and Machine Gun Cartridge (GPC) by Anthony G Williams" (PDF). quarryhs.co.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-27. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  55. ^ Anthony G. Williams. "The 6.5×40 Cartridge: Longer Reach for the M4 & M16". Small Arms Defense Journal. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  56. ^ TM 9-1005-298-12, 7 August 1969
  57. ^ Army Eyeing 6.5mm for Its Future Battle Rifle Archived 2017-10-16 at the Wayback Machine - Kitup.Military.com, 13 October 2017
  58. ^ "Small Caliber Ammunition Enhancing Capabilities" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-11-30. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  59. ^ a b "History of the M118 Ammunition". Sniper Central. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  60. ^ Emily Bohnenkamp, Bradford Hackert, Maurice Motley, and Michael Courtney, Comparing Advertised Ballistic Coefficients with Independent Measurements, DTIC, 2012. https://mittelkaliber.ch/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/BC_Vergleich_1.pdf
  61. ^ a b M962 Saboted Light Armor Penetrator Tracer (SLAPT) Archived 2008-01-29 at the Wayback Machine - Globalsecurity.org
  62. ^ a b http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/images/srta.jpg Archived 2015-11-07 at the Wayback Machine 7.62MM M973 SRTA and M973 SRTA-T
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  64. ^ a b U.S. Navy Small Arms Ammunition Advancements - 7.62MM Special Ball, Long Range, NAVSEA Warfare Centers Crane Archived 2010-10-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  65. ^ Marines (14 October 2015). "How to Shoot Like a Marine - Sniper Edition" – via YouTube.

External links[]