.142857...

← 142856 142857 142858 →
Cardinalone hundred forty-two thousand eight hundred fifty-seven
Ordinal142857th
(one hundred forty-two thousand eight hundred fifty-seventh)
Factorization33 × 11 × 13 × 37
Divisors1, 3, 9, 11, 13, 27, 33, 37, 39, 99, 111, 117, 143, 297, 333, 351, 407, 429, 481, 999, 1221, 1287, 1443, 3663, 3861, 4329, 5291, 10989, 12987, 15873, 47619, 142857
Greek numeral͵βωνζ´
Roman numeralCXLMMDCCCLVII
Binary1000101110000010012
Ternary210202220003
Octal4270118
Duodecimal6A80912
Hexadecimal22E0916

142857, the six repeating digits of 1/7 (0.142857), is the best-known cyclic number in base 10.[1][2][3][4] If it is multiplied by 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6, the answer will be a cyclic permutation of itself, and will correspond to the repeating digits of 2/7, 3/7, 4/7, 5/7, or 6/7 respectively.

142,857 is a Kaprekar number[5] and a Harshad number (in base 10).[6]

Calculation[]

1 × 142,857 = 142,857
2 × 142,857 = 285,714
3 × 142,857 = 428,571
4 × 142,857 = 571,428
5 × 142,857 = 714,285
6 × 142,857 = 857,142
7 × 142,857 = 999,999

If multiplying by an integer greater than 7, there is a simple process to get to a cyclic permutation of 142857. By adding the rightmost six digits (ones through hundred thousands) to the remaining digits and repeating this process until only six digits are left, it will result in a cyclic permutation of 142857:[citation needed]

142857 × 8 = 1142856
1 + 142856 = 142857
142857 × 815 = 116428455
116 + 428455 = 428571
1428572 = 142857 × 142857 = 20408122449
20408 + 122449 = 142857

Multiplying by a multiple of 7 will result in 999999 through this process:

142857 × 74 = 342999657
342 + 999657 = 999999

If you square the last three digits and subtract the square of the first three digits, you also get back a cyclic permutation of the number.[citation needed]

8572 = 734449
1422 = 20164
734449 − 20164 = 714285

It is the repeating part in the decimal expansion of the rational number 1/7 = 0.142857. Thus, multiples of 1/7 are simply repeated copies of the corresponding multiples of 142857:

1/7 = 0.142857
2/7 = 0.285714
3/7 = 0.428571
4/7 = 0.571428
5/7 = 0.714285
6/7 = 0.857142
7/7 = 0.999999 = 1
8/7 = 1.142857
9/7 = 1.285714

1/7 as an infinite sum[]

There is an interesting pattern of doubling, shifting and addition that gives 1/7.

Each term is double the prior term shifted two places to the right. This is can be proved by applying the identity for the sum of a geometric sequence:

Another infinite sum is

Other bases[]

In some other bases, six-digit numbers with similar properties exist, given by base6 − 1/7.[citation needed] For example, in base 12 it is 186↊35 and base 24 3A6KDH.

Connection to the enneagram[]

The 142857 number sequence is used in the enneagram figure, a symbol of the Gurdjieff Work used to explain and visualize the dynamics of the interaction between the two great laws of the Universe (according to G. I. Gurdjieff), the Law of Three and the Law of Seven. The movement of the numbers of 142857 divided by 1/7, 2/7. etc., and the subsequent movement of the enneagram, are portrayed in Gurdjieff's sacred dances known as the movements.[7]

Other properties[]

The 142857 number sequence is also found in several decimals in which the denominator has a factor of 7. In the examples below, the numerators are all 1, however there are instances where it does not have to be, such as 2/7 (0.285714).

For example, consider the fractions and equivalent decimal values listed below:

1/7 = 0.142857...

1/14 = 0.0714285...

1/28 = 0.03571428...

1/35 = 0.0285714...

1/56 = 0.017857142...

1/70 = 0.0142857...

The above decimals follow the 142857 rotational sequence. There are fractions in which the denominator has a factor of 7, such as 1/21 and 1/42, that do not follow this sequence and have other values in their decimal digits.

References[]

  1. ^ "Cyclic number". The Internet Encyclopedia of Science. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29.
  2. ^ Ecker, Michael W. (March 1983). "The Alluring Lore of Cyclic Numbers". The Two-Year College Mathematics Journal. 14 (2): 105–109. doi:10.2307/3026586. JSTOR 3026586.
  3. ^ "Cyclic number". PlanetMath. Archived from the original on 2007-07-14.
  4. ^ Hogan, Kathryn (August 2005). "Go figure (cyclic numbers)". Australian Doctor. Archived from the original on 2007-12-24.
  5. ^ "Sloane's A006886: Kaprekar numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-03.
  6. ^ Dan Goldstein (10 July 2013). "Numbers worth knowing: 142857". Decision Science News. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
  7. ^ Ouspensky, P. D. (1947). "Chapter XVIII". In Search of the Miraculous: Fragments of an Unknown Teaching. London: Routledge.