-iana

-ana (variant: -iana) is a Latin-origin suffix that is used in English to convert nouns—usually proper names—into mass nouns, most commonly in order to refer to a collection of things, facts, stories, memorabilia, and anything else, that relate to a specific place, period, person, etc.[1][2]

For instance, Americana is used to refer to things that are distinctive of the US, while Canadiana is for Canada; in literature, Shakespeareana and Dickensiana are similarly used in reference to items or stories related to William Shakespeare or Charles Dickens, respectively.

The suffix -ana, -iana, or -eana have also often been used in the titles of musical works, as a way for a composer to pay tribute to an earlier composer or noted performer.

History and lexicology[]

The suffix has been around since at least the 16th century, typically in book titles, with the first recorded use of -ana being between 1720 to 1730.[3]

The recognition of the usage of -ana or -iana as a self-conscious literary construction, on the other hand, traces back to at least 1740, when it was mentioned in an ion of Scaligerana, a collection of table talk of Joseph Justus Scaliger, from around 150 years previously.[4] By that period, Scaliger was described as "the father, so to speak, of all those books published under the title of -ana."[5]

As grammatical construction, it is the neuter plural, nominative form of an adjective. So, from Scaliger is formed first the adjective Scaligeranus (Scaligeran), which is then put into the form of an abstract noun, Scaligerana (Scaligeran things). In Americana, a variant construction, the adjectival form already exists as Americanus, so it is simply a neuter plural (suffix –a on the stem American-); the case of Victoriana (things associated with the Victorian period) is superficially similar, but the Latin adjective form is Dog Latin.

Derived terms[]

Places[]

Literature[]

Other[]

Usage[]

In literature[]

In 1718, Charles Gildon subtitled The Complete Art of Poetry with "Shakespeariana; or the most beautiful topicks, descriptions, and similes that occur throughout all Shakespear's plays."

In 1728, Jonathan Smedley had a work titled Gulliveriana: or a Fourth Volume of Miscellanies, being a sequel of the three volumes published by Pope and Swift, to which is added Alexanderiana, or a comparison between the ecclesiastical and poetical Popes and many things in verse and prose relating to the latter.[7]

In 1842, John Wilson Croker, in reference to Samuel Johnson, published Johnsoniana: or, Supplement to Boswell.

Referring to John Milton, C. A. Moore titled a 1927 paper as "Miltoniana (1679–1741)".[6]

In music[]

The suffix -iana, -eana or -ana has often been used in the titles of musical works, as a way of a composer paying a tribute to an earlier composer or a noted performer.

Mauro Giuliani (died 1829) wrote six sets of variations for guitar on themes by Gioachino Rossini, Opp. 119–124. Each set was called "Rossiniana", and collectively they are called Rossiniane.

Musical tributes with the suffix -ana, -iana, or -eana suffix
Work Creator Namesake
Albeniziana Joan Gibert Camins Isaac Albéniz
Bachianas Brasileiras Heitor Villa-Lobos Johann Sebastian Bach
Bartokiana George Rochberg Béla Bartók
Fantasia Busoniana John Ogdon Ferruccio Busoni
Chopiniana Alexander Glazunov Frédéric Chopin
Cimarosiana Gian Francesco Malipiero Domenico Cimarosa
Ode Corelliana Salvatore Di Vittorio Arcangelo Corelli
Debussiana James Rhinehart Claude Debussy
Donizettiana Myer Fredman Gaetano Donizetti
Dussekiana Eric Gross František Xaver Dušek
Frescobaldiana Vittorio Giannini Girolamo Frescobaldi
Gabrieliana Gian Francesco Malipiero Giovanni Gabrieli
Gershwiniana Steven Gerber George Gershwin
Handeliana Józef Koffler George Frideric Handel
Ivesiana (ballet) George Balanchine Charles Ives
Koschatiana Ernst Bacon Thomas Koschat
Lisztiana Dmitri Rogal-Levitski and Jean-François Grancher Franz Liszt
Mahleriana Domenico Giannetta Gustav Mahler
Mozartiana Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Mozartiana Julian Yu
Nazaretheana Stephen Whittington Ernesto Nazareth
Nordraakiana Johan Halvorsen Rikard Nordraak
Offenbachiana Juan José Castro and Manuel Rosenthal Jacques Offenbach
Offenbachiana Maciej Malecki Jacques Offenbach
Paganiniana Alfredo Casella Niccolò Paganini
Paganiniana Nathan Milstein
Paganiana [sic] (piano four hands)[8] Charles Camilleri
Pedrelliana Manuel de Falla and Roberto Gerhard Felip Pedrell
Prestilagoyana Pierre Wissmer Ida Presti and Alexandre Lagoya
Purcelliana Alfred Akon Henry Purcell
Ode Corelliana Salvatore Di Vittorio Arcangelo Corelli
Overture Respighiana Ottorino Respighi
Rossiniane Mauro Giuliani Gioachino Rossini
Rossiniana Ottorino Respighi
Sarasateana Efrem Zimbalist Pablo de Sarasate
Scarlattiana Alfredo Casella and Noam Sheriff Domenico Scarlatti
Schumanniana Vincent d'Indy Robert Schumann
Segoviana Darius Milhaud Andrés Segovia
Soleriana Joaquín Rodrigo Antonio Soler
Stevensonia (orchestral suite, 1917 and 1922) Edward Burlingame Hill Robert Louis Stevenson[9]
Straussiana Erich Wolfgang Korngold Johann Strauss II
Tartiniana Luigi Dallapiccola Giuseppe Tartini
Tchaikovskiana Myer Fredman, Tasmin Little, and John Lenehan Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Telemanniana Hans Werner Henze Georg Philipp Telemann
Thomsoniana Peggy Glanville-Hicks Virgil Thomson
Verdiana Tutti Camarata Giuseppe Verdi
Viottiana Luciano Sgrizzi Giovanni Battista Viotti
Vivaldiana Gian Francesco Malipiero and Ede Terenyi Antonio Vivaldi
Other uses in music
Work Type of work Creator Notes
Asturiana (1942) symphony María Teresa Prieto
Canadiana Suite (1964) album Oscar Peterson
Freudiana rock-opera album Eric Woolfson Woolfon's first solo album, named after pioneer psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud.
Frostiana (1959) musical piece Randall Thompson The work involves 7 poems of Robert Frost, whom the piece is named after.
Kentuckiana: Divertissement On 20 Kentucky Airs, for 2 Pianos, 4 Hands (1948) composition Darius Milhaud
Kreisleriana piano suite Robert Schumann The piece is named after the fictional literary character Johannes Kreisler created by E. T. A. Hoffmann.
Symphony No. 4 (1952) - originally entitled Sinfonia shakespeariana symphony Gösta Nystroem
Vincentiana symphony Einojuhani Rautavaara This piece was named in honour of Vincent van Gogh and reuses some material from Rautavaara's earlier opera on van Gogh, titled Vincent.
Gillespiana (1960) album Dizzy Gillespie The album featured compositions by Lalo Schifrin.
Glinkaiana, Medtneriana, and Scriabiniana ballets These three ballets were staged in the Soviet Union in the early 20th century, set to music by their respective namesakes: Mikhail Glinka, Nikolai Medtner and Alexander Scriabin.

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ "Ana suffix". cycfoundation.org. Archived from the original on 3 September 2010.
  2. ^ a b "iana suffix". Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  3. ^ "Definition of ana | Dictionary.com". www.dictionary.com. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  4. ^ "Scaligerana". Warburg Institute.
  5. ^ Sanford, Eva M. (January 1931). "Scaligerana". The Classical Journal. 26 (4): 279–286.
  6. ^ a b Moore, C. A. 1927. "Miltoniana (1679–1741)". Modern Philology 24(3):321–39. JSTOR 433381.
  7. ^ "Smedley, Jonathan" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  8. ^ "Charles Camilleri CD Notes: Celestial Harmonies For Piano". Murray McLachlan. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011.
  9. ^ Butterworth, Neil (2 October 2013). Dictionary of American Classical Composers. Taylor & Francis. p. 1996. ISBN 978-1-136-79023-2. Retrieved 14 June 2016.