Oikonyms in Western, Central, South, and Southeast Asia can be grouped according to various components, reflecting common linguistic and cultural histories.[1] Toponymic study is not as extensive as it is for placenames in Europe and Anglophone parts of the world, but the origins of many placenames can be determined with a fair degree of certainty.[2][3] One complexity to the study when discussing it in English is that the Romanization of names, during British rule and otherwise, from other languages has not been consistent.[2]

Common affixes[]

Common affixes used in South Asian oikonyms can be grouped based on their linguistic origin: (with examples from India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, and elsewhere such as in Sanskrit-influenced Indonesia):


  1. ^ Husain Siddiqi & Bastian 1985, p. 65.
  2. ^ a b Husain Siddiqi & Bastian 1985, p. 67.
  3. ^ Mohd Siddiqi 1982, p. 332.
  4. ^ a b Southworth 1995, p. 271.
  5. ^ Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999) [First published 1988]. Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. p. 281. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0.
  6. ^ Prantik, Maharashtra (1963). Samagra Savarkar Wangmaya. Hindusabha. p. 436. Retrieved 21 July 2017 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Husain Siddiqi & Bastian 1985, p. 74.
  8. ^ "Things you should know before visiting temples in Bali". The Jakarta Post.
  9. ^ Husain Siddiqi & Bastian 1985, pp. 74–75.
  10. ^ Christie 1887, p. 153, PATAM.
  11. ^ Christie 1887, p. 2, ABAD.
  12. ^ Mohd Siddiqi 1982, p. 335.
  13. ^ Husain Siddiqi & Bastian 1985, p. 75.
  14. ^ Hayyim, Sulayman, "ستان", New Persian-English Dictionary, 2, Tehran: Librairie imprimerie Béroukhim, p. 30 Quote= ستان (p. V2-0030) ستان (۲) Suffix meaning 'a place abounding in'. Ex. گلستان a flower or rose-garden. Syn. زار See گازار Note. This suffix is pronounced stan or setan after a vowel, as in بوستان boostan, a garden, and هندوستان hendoostan, India; and estan after a consonant. Ex. گلستان golestan, and ترکستان torkestan. However, for poetic license, after a consonant also, it may be pronounced setan. Ex. گلستان golsetan


  • Husain Siddiqi, Akhtar; Bastian, Robert W. (1985). "Urban Place Names in Pakistan: A Reflection of Cultural Characteristics". Names. 29 (1): 65–84. OCLC 500207327.
  • Mohd Siddiqi, Jamal (1982). Significance of technical terms in place names—a case-study of Aligarh District. Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 43. pp. 332–341. JSTOR 44141245.
  • Southworth, Franklin C. (1995). "Reconstructing social context from language: Indo-Aryan and Dravidian pre-history". In Erdosy, George (ed.). The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity. Indian philology and South Asian studies. 1. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110144475. ISSN 0948-1923.
  • Blackie, Christina (1887). Geographical Etymology: A Dictionary of Place-names Giving Their Derivations (3rd ed.). John Murray.

Further reading[]