Oikonyms in Western, Central, South, and Southeast Asia can be grouped according to various components, reflecting common linguistic and cultural histories.Toponymic study is not as extensive as it is for placenames in Europe and Anglophone parts of the world, but the origins of many placenames can be determined with a fair degree of certainty.
One complexity to the study when discussing it in English is that the Romanization of names, during British rule and otherwise, from other languages has not been consistent.
Common affixes used in South Asian oikonyms can be grouped based on their linguistic origin: (with examples from India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, and elsewhere such as in Sanskrit-influenced Indonesia):
^Hayyim, Sulayman, "ستان", New Persian-English Dictionary, 2, Tehran: Librairie imprimerie Béroukhim, p. 30 Quote= ستان (p. V2-0030) ستان (۲) Suffix meaning 'a place abounding in'. Ex. گلستان a flower or rose-garden. Syn. زار See گازار Note. This suffix is pronounced stan or setan after a vowel, as in بوستان boostan, a garden, and هندوستان hendoostan, India; and estan after a consonant. Ex. گلستان golestan, and ترکستان torkestan. However, for poetic license, after a consonant also, it may be pronounced setan. Ex. گلستان golsetan
Mohd Siddiqi, Jamal (1982). Significance of technical terms in place names—a case-study of Aligarh District. Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 43. pp. 332–341. JSTOR44141245.
Southworth, Franklin C. (1995). "Reconstructing social context from language: Indo-Aryan and Dravidian pre-history". In Erdosy, George (ed.). The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity. Indian philology and South Asian studies. 1. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN9783110144475. ISSN0948-1923.
Blackie, Christina (1887). Geographical Etymology: A Dictionary of Place-names Giving Their Derivations (3rd ed.). John Murray.