As of 2020[update], there is no evidence of an effect of resveratrol on cancer in humans.
There is no conclusive evidence for an effect of resveratrol on human metabolic syndrome. One 2015 review found little evidence for use of resveratrol to treat diabetes. A 2015 meta-analysis found little evidence for an effect of resveratrol on diabetes biomarkers.
There is insufficient evidence to indicate that consuming resveratrol has an effect on human lifespan.
Resveratrol has been assessed for a possible effect on cognition, but with mixed evidence for an effect. One review concluded that resveratrol had no effect on neurological function, but reported that supplementation improved recognition and mood, although there were inconsistencies in study designs and results.
Although animal experiments have found some evidence that resveratrol may help improve insulin sensitivity and so potentially help manage diabetes, subsequent research on people is limited and does not support the use of resveratrol for this purpose.
The viability of a oral delivery method is unlikely due to the low aqueous solubility of the molecule. The bioavailability of resveratrol is about 0.5% due to extensive hepaticglucuronidation and sulfation. Glucuronidation occurs in the intestine as well as in the liver, whereas sulfonation not only occurs in the liver but in the intestine and by microbial gut activity. Due to rapid metabolism, the half-life of resveratrol is short (about 8–14 minutes), but the half-life of the sulphate and glucoronide metabolites is above 9 hours.
Resveratrol is extensively metabolized in the body, with the liver and intestines as the major sites of its metabolism. Liver metabolites are products of phase II (conjugation) enzymes, which are themselves induced by resveratrol in vitro.
Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a stilbenoid, a derivative of stilbene. It exists as two geometric isomers: cis- (Z) and trans- (E), with the trans-isomer shown in the top image. Resveratrol exists conjugated to glucose.
UV irradiation to cis-resveratrol induces further photochemical reaction, producing a fluorescent molecule named "Resveratrone".
Trans-resveratrol in the powder form was found to be stable under "accelerated stability" conditions of 75% humidity and 40 °C in the presence of air. The trans isomer is also stabilized by the presence of transport proteins. Resveratrol content also was stable in the skins of grapes and pomace taken after fermentation and stored for a long period.lH- and 13C-NMR data for the four most common forms of resveratrols are reported in literature.
Only a few human studies have been done to determine the adverse effects of resveratrol, all of them preliminary with small participant numbers. Adverse effects resulted mainly from long-term use (weeks or longer) and daily doses of 1000 mg or higher, causing nausea, stomach pain, flatulence, and diarrhea. A review of 136 patients in seven studies who were given more than 500 mg for a month showed 25 cases of diarrhea, 8 cases of abdominal pain, 7 cases of nausea, and 5 cases of flatulence. In a year-long preliminary clinical trial in people with Alzheimer's disease, the most frequent adverse effects were nausea and weight loss. A 2018 review of resveratrol effects on blood pressure found that some people had increased frequency of bowel movements and loose stools.
Resveratrol is a phytoalexin, a class of compounds produced by many plants when they are infected by pathogens or physically harmed by cutting, crushing, or ultraviolet radiation.
Plants that synthesize resveratrol include knotweeds, pine trees including Scots pine and Eastern white pine, grape vines, raspberries, mulberries, peanut plants, cocoa bushes, and Vaccinium shrubs that produce berries, including blueberries, cranberries, and bilberries.
The levels of resveratrol found in food varies considerably, even in the same food from season to season and batch to batch.
Resveratrol concentrations in red wines average 1.9±1.7 mg trans-resveratrol/L (8.2±7.5 μM), ranging from nondetectable levels to 14.3 mg/l (62.7 μM) trans-resveratrol. Levels of cis-resveratrol follow the same trend as trans-resveratrol.
In general, wines made from grapes of the Pinot noir and St. Laurent varieties showed the highest level of trans-resveratrol, though no wine or region can yet be said to produce wines with significantly higher concentrations than any other wine or region.Champagne and vinegar also contain appreciable levels of resveratrol.
Red wine contains between 0.2 and 5.8 mg/l, depending on the grape variety. White wine has much less because red wine is fermented with the skins, allowing the wine to extract the resveratrol, whereas white wine is fermented after the skin has been removed. The composition of wine is different from that of grapes since the extraction of resveratrol from grapes depends on the duration of the skin contact, and the resveratrol 3-glucosides are in part hydrolysed, yielding both trans- and cis-resveratrol.
Ounce for ounce, peanuts have about 25% as much resveratrol as red wine.Peanuts, especially sprouted peanuts, have a content similar to grapes in a range of 2.3 to 4.5 μg/g before sprouting, and after sprouting, in a range of 11.7 to 25.7 μg/g, depending on peanut cultivar.
Mulberries (especially the skin) are a source of as much as 50 micrograms of resveratrol per gram dry weight.
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