(9912) 2078 T-3

9912 Donizetti
Orbit of Donizetti (blue) with the inner planets and Jupiter (outermost)
Discovery [1]
Discovered byC. J. van Houten
I. van Houten-G.
T. Gehrels
Discovery sitePalomar Obs.
Discovery date16 October 1977
(9912) Donizetti
Named after
Gaetano Donizetti
(Italian composer)[2]
2078 T-3 · 1979 BH1
1989 SJ10
main-belt · (middle) · Rafita [3][4]: 23 
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc39.66 yr (14,486 days)
Aphelion2.9466 AU
Perihelion2.1790 AU
2.5628 AU
4.10 yr (1,499 days)
0° 14m 24.72s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions6.54 km (calculated)[5]
6.922±0.310 km[6][7]
6.228±0.0018 h (R)[8]
6.230±0.0018 h (R)[8]
0.20 (assumed)[5]
12.838±0.003 (R)[8] · 12.9[1][6] · 12.903±0.003 (R)[8] · 13.08±0.35[9] · 13.29[5]

9912 Donizetti, provisional designation 2078 T-3, is a stony Rafita asteroid from the central regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 7 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered during the third Palomar–Leiden Trojan survey in 1977, and named after Italian composer Gaetano Donizetti.


Donizetti was discovered on 16 October 1977, by the Dutch astronomers Ingrid and Cornelis van Houten, on photographic plates taken by Dutch–American astronomer Tom Gehrels at Palomar Observatory in California, United States.[10]

Trojan survey[]

The survey designation "T-3" stands for the third and last Palomar–Leiden Trojan survey, named after the fruitful collaboration of the Palomar and Leiden Observatory in the 1960s and 1970s. Gehrels used Palomar's Samuel Oschin telescope (also known as the 48-inch Schmidt Telescope), and shipped the photographic plates to Ingrid and Cornelis van Houten at Leiden Observatory where astrometry was carried out. The trio are cred with the discovery of several thousand asteroids.[11]

Orbit and classification[]

It orbits the Sun in the central main-belt at a distance of 2.2–2.9 AU once every 4 years and 1 month (1,499 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.15 and an inclination of 7° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

The body's observation arc begins at the discovering Palomar Observatory on 7 October 1977, just 9 days prior to its official discovery observation.[10]

Rafita family[]

Donizetti is a stony member of the Rafita family, which is located in the central main-belt just beyond the 3:1 mean-motion orbital resonance with Jupiter. The family consists of more than a thousand members, the largest being 1658 Innes and 1587 Kahrstedt, approximately 14 and 15 kilometers in diameter, respectively. The family's namesake, 1644 Rafita, is considered an interloper to the family itself.[4]: 23 

Physical characteristics[]

Donizetti has been characterized as a stony S-type asteroid by Pan-STARRS photometric survey.[5][9]

Rotation period[]

In October 2010, a rotational lightcurve of Donizetti was obtained from photometric observations in the R-band at the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) in California. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 6.228 hours with a brightness variation of 0.19 magnitude (U=2).[8]

In December 2011, PTF obtained a second lightcurve, also in the R-band, that gave a concurring period of 6.230 hours and a higher amplitude of 0.32 magnitude.(U=2).[8]

Diameter and albedo[]

According to the surveys carried out by the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Donizetti measures 6.922 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo of 0.255.[6][7]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for stony asteroids of 0.20 and calculates a diameter of 6.54 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 13.29.[5]


This minor planet was named for Italian composer of symphonies, church and chamber music and operas, Gaetano Donizetti (1797–1848).[2] The approved naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 2 April 1999 (M.P.C. 34356).[12]


  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 9912 Donizetti (2078 T-3)" (2017-06-05 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  2. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(9912) Donizetti". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (9912) Donizetti. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 713. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_7751. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ Broz, M.; Morbidelli, A.; Bottke, W. F.; Rozehnal, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Nesvorný, D. (March 2013). "Constraining the cometary flux through the asteroid belt during the late heavy bombardment". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 551: 16. arXiv:1301.6221. Bibcode:2013A&A...551A.117B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219296.
  4. ^ a b Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families. Asteroids IV. pp. 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. ISBN 9780816532131.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (9912) Donizetti". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  7. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; et al. (November 2011). "Main Belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE. I. Preliminary Albedos and Diameters". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 20. arXiv:1109.4096. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...68M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/68. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Waszczak, Adam; Chang, Chan-Kao; Ofek, Eran O.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; et al. (September 2015). "Asteroid Light Curves from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: Rotation Periods and Phase Functions from Sparse Photometry". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (3): 35. arXiv:1504.04041. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...75W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/75. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  9. ^ a b c Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  10. ^ a b "9912 Donizetti (2078 T-3)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  11. ^ "Minor Planet Discoverers". Minor Planet Center. 24 April 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  12. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 23 June 2017.

External links[]