(70) Panopaea

70 Panopaea
Discovered byHermann Mayer Salomon Goldschmidt
Discovery siteParis Observatory
Discovery date5 May 1861
MPC designation(70) Panopaea
Named after
main belt[2]
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 30 November 2008
Aphelion3.0903 AU
Perihelion2.1402 AU
2.61526 AU
1544.79 days (4.23 years)
Physical characteristics
Dimensions122.17±2.3 km (mean)[4]
Mass(4.33 ± 1.09) × 1018 kg[5]
Mean density
3.48 ± 1.05[5] g/cm3
15.87 ± 0.04 hours[6]
0.0675 ± 0.003[4]

Panopaea (/ˈpænəˈpə/ PAN-ə-PEE; minor planet designation: 70 Panopaea) is a large main belt asteroid. Its orbit is close to those of the Eunomia asteroid family; however, Panopaea is a dark, primitive carbonaceous C-type asteroid in contrast to the S-type asteroids of the Eunomian asteroids. The spectra of the asteroid displays evidence of aqueous alteration.[9] Photometric studies give a rotation period of 15.797 hours and an amplitude of 0.11±0.01 in magnitude. Previous studies that suggested the rotation period may be twice this amount were rejected based upon further observation.[10]

Panopaea was discovered by Hermann Goldschmidt on 5 May 1861.[1] It was his fourteenth and last asteroid discovery. It is named after Panopea, a nymph in Greek mythology; the name was chosen by Robert Main, President of the Royal Astronomical Society.[11] In 1862, Swedish astronomer Nils Christoffer Dunér gave a doctoral thesis on the orbital elements of this asteroid.[12]

The orbit of 70 Panopaea places it in a mean motion resonance with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. The computed Lyapunov time for this asteroid is 24,000 years, indicating that it occupies a chaotic orbit that will change randomly over time because of gravitational perturbations of the planets.[13]

The asteroid frequently makes close approaches with 16 Psyche, such as on June 12, 2040 when it will make a close approach of 0.00602 AU (2.34 Lunar distances, or approx. 770,000 km, 478,455 mi) to the asteroid, and on June 2, 2095 when it will come only 0.003372 AU (1.31 LD) to the asteroid.[2]


  1. ^ a b "Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets (1)-(5000)". IAU: Minor Planet Center. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2008.
  2. ^ a b "70 Panopaea". JPL Small-Body Database. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 31 December 2008.
  3. ^ "(70) Panopaea". AstDyS. Italy: University of Pisa. Retrieved 31 December 2008.
  4. ^ a b Tedesco; et al. (2004). "Supplemental IRAS Minor Planet Survey (SIMPS)". IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Planetary Data System. Archived from the original on 17 August 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2008.
  5. ^ a b Carry, B. (December 2012), "Density of asteroids", Planetary and Space Science, 73, pp. 98–118, arXiv:1203.4336, Bibcode:2012P&SS...73...98C, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2012.03.009. See Table 1.
  6. ^ Schroll & Schober (1983). "Lightcurves and rotation periods for the asteroids 70 Panopaea and 235 Carolina". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series. 53: 77–79. Bibcode:1983A&AS...53...77S.
  7. ^ Neese (2005). "Asteroid Taxonomy". EAR-A-5-DDR-TAXONOMY-V5.0. Planetary Data System. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2008.
  8. ^ Tholen (2007). "Asteroid Absolute Magnitudes". EAR-A-5-DDR-ASTERMAG-V11.0. Planetary Data System. Archived from the original on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2008.
  9. ^ Fornasier, S.; et al. (February 1999), "Spectroscopic comparison of aqueous altered asteroids with CM2 carbonaceous chondrite meteorites", Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement, 135: 65−73, Bibcode:1999A&AS..135...65F, doi:10.1051/aas:1999161.
  10. ^ Marciniak, Anna; et al. (June 2016), "Difficult cases in photometric studies of asteroids", 37th Meeting of the Polish Astronomical Society, held 7-10 September, 2015 at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland. Proceedings of the Polish Astronomical Society, 3, pp. 84−87, Bibcode:2016pas..conf...84M.
  11. ^ Schmadel, Lutz (2003). Dictionary of minor planet names (fifth ed.). Germany: Springer. p. 22. ISBN 3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 31 December 2008.
  12. ^ Plicht, Christof A. (24 December 2016), "Dunér, Nils Christoffer", Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers, doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-9917-7_388, retrieved 12 January 2018.
  13. ^ Šidlichovský, M. (1999), Svoren, J.; Pittich, E. M.; Rickman, H. (eds.), "Resonances and chaos in the asteroid belt", Evolution and source regions of asteroids and comets : proceedings of the 173rd colloquium of the International Astronomical Union, held in Tatranska Lomnica, Slovak Republic, August 24–28, 1998, pp. 297–308, Bibcode:1999esra.conf..297S.

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