Stephania ( minor planet designation: 220 Stephania) is a dark background asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 32 km (20 mi) in diameter. It was discovered on 19 May 1881, by Austrian astronomer Johann Palisa at the Vienna Observatory. The  C-type asteroid has a rotation period of 18.2 hours. It was named after  Princess Stéphanie of Belgium.
Classification and orbit [ ]
Stephania is a non- family asteroid of the main belt's background population, when applying the Hierarchical Clustering Method to its proper orbital elements. It orbits the Sun in the  inner asteroid belt at a distance of 1.7–3.0 AU once every 3 years and 7 months (1,315 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.26 and an inclination of 8 ° with respect to the ecliptic.
Discovery and naming [ ] Stephania was discovered by Johann Palisa on May 19, 1881, in Vienna. It was the first discovery he made after transferring to the observatory from Pola. 
The name honours
Crown Princess Stéphanie (1864–1945), wife of the heir-apparent Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria. The couple was married the year the asteroid was discovered. It was the first time that a naming commemorated a wedding and was given as a wedding gift. The official naming citation was mentioned in  by The Names of the Minor Planets Paul Herget in 1955 ( ). H 27
Physical characteristics [ ]
Spectral type [ ]
Tholen classification, this asteroid's spectrum is ambiguous, close to an X-type and somewhat similar to that of a carbonaceous C-type asteroid (CX). A French spectroscopic survey that observed two dozens of these X-types classified by Tholen, determined that  Stephania is in fact a carbonaceous C-type asteroid (rather than an X-type). The  Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has also characterized it as a primitive P-type asteroid. 
Lightcurves [ ]
Lightcurve data has also been recorded by observers at the Antelope Hill Observatory ( ), which has been designated as an official observatory by the H09 Minor Planet Center.
Diameter and albedo [ ]
According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite
IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's WISE telescope, Stephania measures between 31.12 and 38.46 kilometers in diameter and its surface has a low albedo between 0.03 and 0.075.       The  Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0607 and a diameter of 31.04 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 11.2.
Notes [ ]
^ Anonymous lightcurve –CALL-2011 (web): rotation period
hours with a brightness amplitude of 18.19 mag. Quality code of 2. Summary figures for (220) Stephania at the 0.25 LCDB
^ a b
Lightcurve plot of (220) Stephania by Robert A. Koff (a.k.a. William Koff) Antelope Hills Observatory, Colorado ( ); Rotation period H09 hours with a brightness amplitude of 18.21 mag. Quality code of 2. Summary figures at the 0.21 LCDB
References [ ]
^ a b c d e
"JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 220 Stephania" (2017-07-01 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory . Retrieved . 28 October 2017
^ a b c d e
Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(220) Stephania". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (220) Stephania. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 35. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_221. ISBN . 978-3-540-00238-3
^ a b c d e f g h i
"LCDB Data for (220) Stephania". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB) . Retrieved . 28 October 2017
^ a b
"Asteroid 220 Stephania". Small Bodies Data Ferret . Retrieved . 24 October 2019
. "Stephanian" (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. Oxford English Dictionary (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
^ a b c d
Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. 12: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode: 2004PDSS...12.....T . Retrieved . 22 October 2019
^ a b c
Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv: . 1406.6645 Bibcode: 2014ApJ...791..121M. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121 . Retrieved . 28 October 2017
^ a b c d
Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv: . 1509.02522 Bibcode: 2015ApJ...814..117N. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117 . Retrieved . 28 October 2017
^ a b c d
Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode: 2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi: 10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117 . Retrieved . 28 October 2017
^ a b c d
Durech, J.; Delbo', M.; Carry, B.; Hanus, J.; Alí-Lagoa, V. (July 2017). "Asteroid shapes and thermal properties from combined optical and mid-infrared photometry inversion". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 604: 8. arXiv: . 1706.01232 Bibcode: 2017A&A...604A..27D. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201730868 . Retrieved . 28 October 2017
^ a b c d e f
Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv: . 1109.6407 Bibcode: 2011ApJ...741...90M. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
^ a b c d
Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv: . 1606.08923 Bibcode: 2016AJ....152...63N. doi: 10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63 . Retrieved . 28 October 2017
Mohamed, R. A.; Chiorny, V. G.; Dovgopol, A. N.; Shevchenko, V. G. (November 1994). "Photometry of five asteroids: 189 Phthia, 220 Stephania, 289 Nenetta, 312 Pierretta and 626 Notburga". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement. 108: 69–72. Bibcode: 1994A&AS..108...69M . Retrieved . 28 October 2017
^ a b
Fornasier, S.; Clark, B. E.; Dotto, E. (July 2011). "Spectroscopic survey of X-type asteroids". Icarus. 214 (1): 131–146. arXiv: . 1105.3380 Bibcode: 2011Icar..214..131F. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2011.04.022.
^ a b
"220 Stephania". Minor Planet Center . Retrieved . 28 October 2017
External links [ ]