(178) Belisana

178 Belisana
178Belisana (Lightcurve Inversion).png
Lightcurve-based 3D-model of Belisana
Discovered byJ. Palisa
Discovery siteAustrian Naval Obs.
Discovery date6 November 1877
(178) Belisana
Named after
(Celtic mythology)
1935 UA1 · A899 LE
A904 UA
main-belt[1][3] · (inner)
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc132.36 yr (48,345 d)
Aphelion2.5667 AU
Perihelion2.3536 AU
2.4601 AU
3.86 yr (1,409 d)
0° 15m 19.44s / day
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
35.50 km (derived)[6]
35.81±0.9 km[7]
38.26±1.12 km[8]
42.09±11.05 km[9]
12.31±0.07 h[10]
12.32±0.05 h[10]
12.321±0.003 h[11]
12.323±0.002 h[12]
24.6510±0.0003 h[13]
0.2026 (derived)[6]
Tholen = S[3]
SMASS = S[3] · S[6]
B–V = 0.904[3]
U–B = 0.486[3]

Belisana (minor planet designation: 178 Belisana) is a stony background asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 38 kilometers (24 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 6 November 1877, by Austrian astronomer Johann Palisa at the Austrian Naval Observatory in today's Croatia.[1] The S-type asteroid has a rotation period of 12.32 hours and a rather spherical shape.[6] It was named after the Celtic goddess Belisama (Belisana).[2]

Orbit and classification[]

Belisana is a non-family asteroid from the main belt's background population.[4][5] It orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 2.4–2.6 AU once every 3 years and 10 months (1,409 days; semi-major axis of 2.46 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.04 and an inclination of 2° with respect to the ecliptic.[3]

Physical characteristics[]

Belisana has been characterized as a common, stony S-type asteroid in both the Tholen and SMASS classification.[3]

Rotation period[]

Photometric observations of this asteroid from multiple observatories during 2007 gave a light curve with a period of 12.321 ± 0.002 hours and a brightness variation of 0.10 ± 0.03 in magnitude. This is in agreement with a study performed in 1992. However, it is possible that the light curve may have a period of 24.6510 ± 0.0003 hours; it will require further study to exclude this solution.[13]

Diameter and albedo[]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Belisana measures between 35.81 and 42.09 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.214 and 0.2438.[7][8][9]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.2026 and a diameter of 35.50 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 9.6.[6]


This minor planet was named after the goddess Belisama (or Belisana) from Celtic mythology, meaning "queen of heaven", the most warlike goddess among British Celts, and equivalent to the goddesses Athene or Minerva. The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 22).[2]


  1. ^ a b c "178 Belisana". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(178) Belisana". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (178) Belisana. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 31. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_179. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 178 Belisana" (2018-04-23 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Asteroid 178 Belisana". Small Bodies Data Ferret. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  5. ^ a b "Asteroid (178) Belisana". AstDyS-2, Asteroids – Dynamic Site. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (178) Belisana". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. 12: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  9. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63.
  10. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (178) Belisana". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  11. ^ a b Harris, A. W.; Young, J. W.; Dockweiler, Thor; Gibson, J.; Poutanen, M.; Bowell, E. (January 1992). "Asteroid lightcurve observations from 1981". Icarus. 95 (1): 115–147.ResearchsupportedbyLowellObservatoryEndowmentandNASA. Bibcode:1992Icar...95..115H. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(92)90195-D. ISSN 0019-1035. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  12. ^ Pilcher, Frederick; Benishek, Vladimir; Oey, Julian (April 2009). "Period Determination for 178 Belisana". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 36 (2): 68. Bibcode:2009MPBu...36...68P. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  13. ^ a b Oey, Julian; Krajewski, Ric (June 2008). "Lightcurve Analysis of Asteroids from Kingsgrove and Other Collaborating Observatories in the First Half of 2007". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 35 (2): 47–48. Bibcode:2008MPBu...35...47O. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  14. ^ Pravec, Petr; Harris, Alan W.; Kusnirák, Peter; Galád, Adrián; Hornoch, Kamil (September 2012). "Absolute magnitudes of asteroids and a revision of asteroid albedo estimates from WISE thermal observations". Icarus. 221 (1): 365–387. Bibcode:2012Icar..221..365P. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2012.07.026. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  15. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007.

External links[]