|(Emperor of Tibetan Empire) |
|36th Emperor of Tibetan Empire|
|Reign||c. 676 – 704|
|Successor||Lha Balpo or |
|Born||'dul srong mang po rje|
lha-lung, sgergs, Lhasa Tibetan Empire
(aged of 36 years)
'jang (modern Yunnan)
lha-ri-chan, pying-bar (mordern Qonggyai County)
|Wife||mchims bza' btsan mo tog|
|Lönchen||Gar Trinring Tsendro|
|Royal House||Yarlung Dynasty|
|Mother||'bro za khri ma lod|
'Dus-rong ascended the Tibetan throne after the death of his father, Mangsong Mangtsen, in 676. The Old Book of Tang says that 'Dus-srong was eight years old in 679 — nine years old by Western reckoning. He was, therefore, presumably born in 670 and was six or seven years old when he began his reign. Due to his youth, he was enthroned with the minister Gar Tongtsen's second son, Khri 'bring, to act as regent.
In 676 the Tibetans made raids on Shanzhou, Guozhou, Hezhou (now Linxia), Diezhou, Migong and Danling in Gansu. The Chinese counterattacked, defeating the Tibetans at Longzhi. The Chinese army led by Li Jingxuan were soundly defeated near Qinghai Lake, however, and by the end of 677 Tibet controlled the whole of the Tarim Basin and the mountainous regions to the southwest.
The western kingdom of Zhangzhung revolted soon after the death of King Mangsong Mangtsen (also known as Trimang Löntsen, Wylie: khri mang slon rtsan, r. 650–677), the son of Songtsen Gampo, but was brought back under Tibetan control by the "firm governance of the great leaders of the Mgar clan" the following year.
Under the leadership of his powerful mother, Khri ma lod, and his ministers and generals during the early part of his reign, Tibet continued to maintain and even expand its territory.
The Tibetans gained control of an important Tang fortress at Anrong in 678 on the Min River north of Chengdu which they held for more than sixty years as a frontier post. According to an 11th-century Chinese history, the Erhe people from the Erhai Lake region in 'Jang, one of the princedoms around the upper waters of the Yangtze which later made up Nanzhao, submitted to Tibet this same year, asking for an alliance against the Chinese. The Old Book of Tang reports:
At that time, Tufan obtained Yangtong, Dangxiang as well as other Chiang people tribal territories. To the east it extended to Liangzhou, Songzhou, and so forth, and to the south it extended to India. On the west they attacked and took over four military governments such as Guici (Kucha), Sule (Kashgar), and so forth, while to the north they extended as far as over 10,000 li to the Tujue (Turks) area. Since the Han and the Wei dynasties, the western barbarians had seen no prosperity comparable to these days' prosperity.
The Chinese army led by Wei Daijia unsuccessfully invaded Tibet in 689. Many of the soldiers died and the commander of the troops was executed for his failure. It was also in this year that the Tibetan princess Khri-bangs was married to an 'A-zha chief to strengthen bonds between the two peoples. They had a son named Ma-ga Thogon Khagan.
Two Tibetan generals defected to the Chinese with their troops in 692. The Chinese then defeated the Tibetans, regaining control of the Tarim Basin and the lucrative trade routes to the West, which they held for almost a century before the Tibetans reconquered the region.
Gar Trinring Tsendro went to Chang'an in 696 to try to negotiate peace with Empress Wu Zetian (r. 684–705) on condition that China remove all troops from Central Asia and divide the Western Turks between China and Tibet. She refused to negotiate.
'Dus-srong realised that members of the mGar family had become independent warlords and posed a threat to the central authority of the king. So, in 699 he pretended to organise a great hunt and then had his men turn on members of the mGar and their supporters. Then he personally marched north and confronted Gar Trinring Tsendro, who surrendered without a fight and, according to the Old Book of Tang, committed suicide. His brother fled to China.
After this, 'Dus-srong asserted the right of the power of the king over his ministers.
'Dus-srong personally led 10,000 troops into four battles in some unnamed place to the northeast in 702. The next year he "established his authority over the 'Jang (Nanzhao), he imposed tribute on the White Mywa, he subdued the Black Mywa (probably the Miao people), and so on."
It seems Nepal remained tributary to Tibet throughout the reign of 'Dus-rong. A Nepalese stone edict of 695, during the reign of the Licchavi king, Shivadeva II, records: "because of the reason that Nepal paid taxes to Tibet, five officials must take the responsibility of the coolies who carry the laguages [sic] [sic = luggage?] every year." This is confirmed by the Old Book of Tang which record that in 703, soon after 'Dus-rong's death, "the subject countries in the south, such as Nepal and others, all revolted." Furthermore, the Tibetan Annals record that 'Dus-rong spent the summers of 690, 697 and 699 in Nepal.
'Dus-srong he married two women from important Tibetan clans — 'Dam-gyi Cog-ro-bza', and Chimza Tsunmotog (Wylie: mChims-bza' bTsan-ma Thog-thog-sten), Princess of Chim, with whom he had a son Khri-lde-gtsug-btsan (also known later as Mes-ag-thoms) in 704. It seems 'Dus-rong also had a Turkish bride, as the Tibetan Annals record the death of the princess "Gatun" (= Turk: Khatun?) in 708.
Although 'Dus-srong is primarily remembered as a warrior, according to the Testament of Ba, he supported Buddhism and had a temple called Khri rtse built in Gling Khams, "and so on", which is recorded on an inscription at sKarchung written by Emperor Sadnalegs about a century later.
'Dus-srong died in 704 in battle in Mywa territory in modern Yunnan. The Tang Annals state he was on his way to suppress tributary kingdoms on the southern borders of Tibet, including Nepal and parts of India. There was a dispute among his sons but, "after a long time" the people put seven year old Qilisuzan (Wylie: khri lde gtsug btsan), later known as Me Agtsom, on the throne.