'Arura

Bani Zeid al-Sharqiya
Arabic transcription(s)
 • Arabicبني زيد الشرقية
 • LatinBani Zeid East (official)
Bani Zayd ash-Sharqiyya (unofficial)
Arura, in the distance
Arura, in the distance
Bani Zeid al-Sharqiya is located in the Palestinian territories
Bani Zeid al-Sharqiya
Bani Zeid al-Sharqiya
Location of Bani Zeid al-Sharqiya within Palestine
Coordinates: 32°02′N 35°10′E / 32.033°N 35.167°E / 32.033; 35.167Coordinates: 32°02′N 35°10′E / 32.033°N 35.167°E / 32.033; 35.167
Palestine grid165/161, 166/161
StateState of Palestine
GovernorateRamallah and al-Bireh
Government
 • TypeMunicipality
 • Head of MunicipalityAbd al-Rahman al-Nubani
Population
 (2007)
 • Total5,083
Name meaning"Eastern Bani Zeid"

Bani Zeid al-Sharqiya (Arabic: بني زيد الشرقية‎) is a Palestinian town in the northern West Bank, located north of Ramallah in the Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate. It was formed as a result of a merger of the villages of 'Arura,[1] Mazari al-Nubani, and Abwein, although the latter separated from the municipality. Bani Zeid al-Sharqiya is 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) north of Ajjul and other nearby localities include Deir as-Sudan to the southeast, Kafr Ein to the east, and Abwein to the southwest.[2]

History[]

Both Arura and Mazari al-Nubani were part of the Bani Zeid subdistrict in the Sanjak of Jerusalem. The two villages produced a combined 99 qintars of olive oil, the chief agricultural product of the Bani Zeid,[3] and adult males in were taxed a combined 649 akçe.[when?][4]

'Arura[]

'Arura (Arabic: عاروره‎, ‘Arūrā) 32°02′30″N 35°10′18″E / 32.04167°N 35.17167°E / 32.04167; 35.17167 (Palestine grid 166/160) is situated 500 meters (1,600 ft) above sea level.[5]

History[]

Pottery sherds from the IA I, IA II, Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Crusader/Ayyubid eras have been found here.[6]

Near, and within the village are three shrines dedicated to Sheikh Radwan, Sheikh Ahmad, and al-Khidr. Al-Khidr's shrine, in the center of the village, has no relation to al-Khidr, and his simply dedicated to a holy man with the same name. Al-Khidr or Saint George is revered throughout Palestine in several towns and villages. Sheikh Ahmad's shrine is to the west of 'Arura.[7]

The Shrine of Sheikh Radwan bin 'Ulayl al-Arsufi, built during the Ayyubid rule of interior Palestine, is located to the southwest of the village situated on a hill roughly 600 meters (2,000 ft) above sea level. Not much is known about Radwan, except that his family was from Arsuf and he was an important man in the area that died in Egypt and was transferred to 'Arura for his burial. Muslim scholars suggested that Sheikh Radwan was from the 'Ulayl family. An Arabic inscription written in typical rural Ayyubid style, on the shrine's surface reads that he was transferred to "blessed Syria" (in early Islamic times, Palestine was a province of Syria). A mosque was constructed adjacent to the shrine.[7]

Pottery sherds from the Mamluk era have also been found here.[6]

Ottoman era[]

In 1596 'Arura appeared in the Ottoman tax registers as being in the Nahiya of Quds of the Liwa of Quds. It had a population of 62 households, all Muslim, who paid a fixed tax rate of 33,3% on agricultural products, including on wheat, barley, olive trees, vineyards and fruit trees, goats and/or beehives; a total of 12,000 akçe. 1/6 of the revenue went to a Waqf.[8][9]

In 1838 'Arurah was noted as a Muslim village, part of the Beni Zeid area, located north of Jerusalem.[10]

Victor Guérin visited the village in the late 19th century, and found it to have about 350-400 inhabitants. He also observed fragments of columns and other indications of an ancient town. There were also threshing-floors which appeared ancient.[11]

Socin found from an official Ottoman village list from about 1870 that Arura had a total of 91 houses and a population of 300, though the population count included men, only.[12][13]

In 1882, the PEF's Survey of Western Palestine described the village, called Arara, as being a small, on high ground, and remarkable for having five sacred places on the west side of the village.[14]

In 1896 the different parts of Arura was estimated to have about 237, 99 and 204 inhabitants; in all a population of 540 persons.[15]

British Mandate era[]

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, 'Arura had a population of 426 Muslim,[16] increasing in the 1931 census to 566 Muslim, in 131 houses.[17]

The 1945 statistics found 660 Muslim inhabitants,[18] with a total land area of 10,978 dunams.[19] Of this, 7,095 were used for plantations and irrigable land, 787 for cereals,[20] while 26 dunams were classified as built-up areas.[21]

Jordanian era[]

In the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and after the 1949 Armistice Agreements, 'Arura came under Jordanian rule.

In 1961, the population of 'Arura was 1,337.[22]

Post 1967[]

Since the Six-Day War in 1967, 'Arura has been under Israeli occupation.

There was a sharp decrease in the population from 1961 to 1982, caused by nearly half of 'Arura's inhabitants fleeing the village in the 1967 Six-Day War.[5] In 1997, 'Arura had a population of 2,087, of which 30 residents (1.4%) were Palestinian refugees.[23] The gender make-up was 1,069 males and 1,018 females.[23] According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, it had a population of approximately 2,967 in mid-year 2006.[24]

Mazari al-Nubani[]

Mazari al-Nubani (Arabic: مزارع النوباني‎) 32°02′58″N 35°09′57″E / 32.04944°N 35.16583°E / 32.04944; 35.16583, (Palestine grid 165/161) is situated along the same height as 'Arura.

History[]

Mazari al-Nubani was by earlier scholars (Röhricht, Prawer and Benvenisti) identified with the Crusader village called Mezera, but newer scholars (Finkelstein et al) disputes this.[25]

Ottoman era[]

In 1596 the village, under the name of Mazra'at al-'Abbas, appeared in the Ottoman tax registers as being in the Nahiya of Quds of the Liwa of Quds. It had a population of 60 households and 21 bachelors, all Muslim. Taxes were paid on wheat, barley, olive trees, vineyards and fruit trees, goats and/or beehives; a total of 6,910 akçe. 1/3 of the revenue went to a Waqf.[26][27]

In 1838 el-Mezari'a was noted as a Muslim village, part of the Beni Zeid area, located north of Jerusalem.[10]

When Guérin passed by the village in 1870, he estimated it had a population of about 600.[28] An Ottoman village list from about the same year showed Mazari with a population of 560, in 163 houses, though the population count included men only. It was also noted it was located east of Qarawat Bani Zeid.[29][30]

In 1882, the PEF's Survey of Western Palestine described the village, then called Mezrah,[31] as being of moderate size, on high ground.[32]

In 1896 the population of Mezra‘a was estimated to be about 1,008 persons.[15]

British Mandate era[]

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Mazarie' al-Nubani had a population of 611 Muslims,[33] increasing in the 1931 census to 864 Muslims, in 193 houses.[34]

The 1945 statistics found 1,090 Muslim inhabitants[18] with a total of 9,631 dunam of land.[35] Of this, 7,399 were used for plantations and irrigable land, 445 for cereals,[36] while 59 dunams were classified as built-up areas.[37]

Jordanian era[]

In the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and after the 1949 Armistice Agreements, Mazari Nubani came under Jordanian rule.

In 1961, the population of Mazari al-Nubani was 1,358.[22]

Post 1967[]

Since the Six-Day War in 1967, Mazari al-Nuban has been under Israeli occupation.

According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), the town had a population of approximately 2,510 inhabitants in mid-year 2006.[24]

Local government[]

The municipality was formed after a merger of 'Arura, Mazari al-Nubani, and Abwein prior to the Palestinian municipal elections in 2005. During the elections, Fatima Taher Sihweil from Abwein won and the municipality fell apart with only 'Arura and Mazari al-Nubani remaining.[citation needed]

References[]

  1. ^ from 'Arura, personal name, according to Palmer, 1881, p. 225
  2. ^ Satellite view of 'Arura
  3. ^ Singer, 1994, p. 78
  4. ^ Singer, 1994, p. 59
  5. ^ a b Welcome To 'Arura Palestine Remembered.
  6. ^ a b Finkelstein, 1997, p. 466
  7. ^ a b Sharon, 1997, pp. 121 -123
  8. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 112
  9. ^ Toledano, 1984, p. 288, has 'Arura at location 35°09′50″E 32°02′30″N.
  10. ^ a b Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, Appendix 2, p. 125
  11. ^ Guérin, 1875, p. 170, partly translated in Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 303
  12. ^ Socin, 1879, p. 144
  13. ^ Hartmann, 1883, p. 107 noted 80 houses
  14. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 289
  15. ^ a b Schick, 1896, p. 124
  16. ^ Barron, 1923, Table VII, Sub-district of Ramallah, p. 16
  17. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 47.
  18. ^ a b Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 26
  19. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 64
  20. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 111
  21. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 161
  22. ^ a b Government of Jordan, Department of Statistics, 1964, p. 24
  23. ^ a b Palestinian Population by Locality and Refugee Status Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS).
  24. ^ a b Projected Mid -Year Population for Ramallah & Al Bireh Governorate by Locality 2004- 2006 Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS).
  25. ^ Röhricht, 1887, p. 200, Prawer and Benvenisti, 1970; both cited in Finkelstein, 1997, p. 464. Finkelstein found no old pottery here.
  26. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 114
  27. ^ Toledano, 1984, p. 296, has Mazari at location 35°09′35″E 32°03′00″N.
  28. ^ Guérin, 1875, p. 170
  29. ^ Socin, 1879, p. 157
  30. ^ Hartmann, 1883, p. 107, noted 103 houses
  31. ^ meaning "The sown land", according to Palmer, 1881, p. 239
  32. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 291
  33. ^ Barron, 1923, Table VII, Sub-district of Ramallah, p. 17
  34. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 50.
  35. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 65
  36. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 112
  37. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 162

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