Both Arura and Mazari al-Nubani were part of the Bani Zeid subdistrict in the Sanjak of Jerusalem. The two villages produced a combined 99 qintars of olive oil, the chief agricultural product of the Bani Zeid, and adult males in were taxed a combined 649 akçe.[when?]
Near, and within the village are three shrines dedicated to Sheikh Radwan, Sheikh Ahmad, and al-Khidr. Al-Khidr's shrine, in the center of the village, has no relation to al-Khidr, and his simply dedicated to a holy man with the same name. Al-Khidr or Saint George is revered throughout Palestine in several towns and villages. Sheikh Ahmad's shrine is to the west of 'Arura.
The Shrine of Sheikh Radwan bin 'Ulayl al-Arsufi, built during the Ayyubid rule of interior Palestine, is located to the southwest of the village situated on a hill roughly 600 meters (2,000 ft) above sea level. Not much is known about Radwan, except that his family was from Arsuf and he was an important man in the area that died in Egypt and was transferred to 'Arura for his burial. Muslim scholars suggested that Sheikh Radwan was from the 'Ulayl family. An Arabic inscription written in typical rural Ayyubid style, on the shrine's surface reads that he was transferred to "blessed Syria" (in early Islamic times, Palestine was a province of Syria). A mosque was constructed adjacent to the shrine.
Pottery sherds from the Mamluk era have also been found here.
In 1596 'Arura appeared in the Ottomantax registers as being in the Nahiya of Quds of the Liwa of Quds. It had a population of 62 households, all Muslim, who paid a fixed tax rate of 33,3% on agricultural products, including on wheat, barley, olive trees, vineyards and fruit trees, goats and/or beehives; a total of 12,000 akçe. 1/6 of the revenue went to a Waqf.
In 1838 'Arurah was noted as a Muslim village, part of the Beni Zeid area, located north of Jerusalem.
Victor Guérin visited the village in the late 19th century, and found it to have about 350-400 inhabitants. He also observed fragments of columns and other indications of an ancient town. There were also threshing-floors which appeared ancient.
Socin found from an official Ottoman village list from about 1870 that Arura had a total of 91 houses and a population of 300, though the population count included men, only.
In 1882, the PEF's Survey of Western Palestine described the village, called Arara, as being a small, on high ground, and remarkable for having five sacred places on the west side of the village.
In 1896 the different parts of Arura was estimated to have about 237, 99 and 204 inhabitants; in all a population of 540 persons.
The 1945 statistics found 660 Muslim inhabitants, with a total land area of 10,978 dunams. Of this, 7,095 were used for plantations and irrigable land, 787 for cereals, while 26 dunams were classified as built-up areas.
There was a sharp decrease in the population from 1961 to 1982, caused by nearly half of 'Arura's inhabitants fleeing the village in the 1967 Six-Day War. In 1997, 'Arura had a population of 2,087, of which 30 residents (1.4%) were Palestinian refugees. The gender make-up was 1,069 males and 1,018 females. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, it had a population of approximately 2,967 in mid-year 2006.
In 1596 the village, under the name of Mazra'at al-'Abbas, appeared in the Ottomantax registers as being in the Nahiya of Quds of the Liwa of Quds. It had a population of 60 households and 21 bachelors, all Muslim. Taxes were paid on wheat, barley, olive trees, vineyards and fruit trees, goats and/or beehives; a total of 6,910 akçe. 1/3 of the revenue went to a Waqf.
In 1838 el-Mezari'a was noted as a Muslim village, part of the Beni Zeid area, located north of Jerusalem.
When Guérin passed by the village in 1870, he estimated it had a population of about 600. An Ottoman village list from about the same year showed Mazari with a population of 560, in 163 houses, though the population count included men only. It was also noted it was located east of Qarawat Bani Zeid.
The 1945 statistics found 1,090 Muslim inhabitants with a total of 9,631 dunam of land. Of this, 7,399 were used for plantations and irrigable land, 445 for cereals, while 59 dunams were classified as built-up areas.
The municipality was formed after a merger of 'Arura, Mazari al-Nubani, and Abwein prior to the Palestinian municipal elections in 2005. During the elections, Fatima Taher Sihweil from Abwein won and the municipality fell apart with only 'Arura and Mazari al-Nubani remaining.
^from 'Arura, personal name, according to Palmer, 1881, p. 225