'Abd Allah ibn 'Abbas

Hibr al-Umma
Al-Bahr

Ibn Abbas
ٱبْن عَبَّاس
Ibn Abbas.png
Ibn Abbas inscribed in Arabic calligraphy
Governor of Basra
In office
660–661
Preceded byUthman ibn Hunayf
Succeeded byAl-Harith ibn Abd Allah
Personal
Bornc. 619
Diedc. 687
ReligionIslam
ChildrenAli
Al-Abbas
Al-Fadl
Asma
Lubaba
Muhammad
Sa'd
Ubayd Allah
Parents
OccupationMufassir
RelativesMuhammad (cousin)
Muslim leader

Ibn Abbas (Arabic: عَبْد ٱللَّٰه ٱبْن عَبَّاس ٱبْنُ عَبْدِ ٱلْمُطَّلِبِ, romanizedʿAbd Allāh ibn Abbās ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib; c. 619– 687), was a 7th-century Islamic scholar. Among the prominent companions of Muhammad, Ibn Abbas is frequently ranked as the greatest mufassir of all time.[1][2][3]

The son of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib and Lubaba bint al-Harith, Ibn Abbas belonged to the Quraysh's tribe's aristocratic clan Hashim. In his youth, he converted to Islam and became a prominent companion of Muhammad. Following Muhammad's death in 632, Ibn Abbas served as a close aide to caliphs Abu Bakr (r. 632–634) and Umar (r. 634–644). He moved up the ranks through Uthman's (r. 644–656) caliphate until he became the governor of Basra during his uncle Ali's caliphate (r. 656–661). Ibn Abbas also served as a commander for the caliph's army in the First Muslim Civil War. After Ali's assassination in January 661, Ibn Abbas retired from politics and maintained friendly relations with caliph Mu'awiya I (r. 661–680). Ibn Abbas refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid I (r. 680–683) and the latter's rival Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (r. 683–692) during the Second Muslim Civil War. He resided in Taif, where he died around 687.

'Abd Allah ibn Abbas was highly regarded for his knowledge of traditions and his critical interpretation of the Qur'an. From early on, he gathered information from other companions of Muhammad and gave classes and wrote commentaries.[1]

Origins and early life[]

Ibn Abbas was born in c. 619 (3 BH) in Mecca. His father Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib was a wealthy merchant, who hailed from the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh. His mother was Lubaba bint al-Harith who belonged to the Banu Hilal tribe.[4]

Ibn Abbas' mother took him to Muhammad before he had begun to suckle. This event represented the beginning of a close relationship between them.[3]

As he grew up, he was by Muhammad's side undertaking tasks such as fetching water for ablution (Arabic: wudu). He would pray (Arabic: salat) with Muhammad and follow him on his assemblies, journeys and expions. It was said that Muhammad would often draw him close, pat him on the shoulder and pray, "O God! Teach him (the knowledge of) the Book (Qur'an) ".[5] Muhammad had also supplicated for him to attain discernment in religion.[6] Ibn Abbas kept following Muhammad, memorising and learning his teaching.[3]

Muhammad's statement[]

In 631/2 (AH 10), Muhammad suffered his last illness. During this period, the Hadith of the pen and paper was reported, with Ibn Abbas, who was about twelve years old, as the first-level narrator.[7] Days after that, Abbas and Ali supported Muhammad's weight on their shoulder, as Muhammad was too weak to walk unaided.[8]

Rashidun Caliphate[]

Abu Bakr's reign (632–634)[]

Inheritance from Muhammad[]

Ibn Abbas was thirteen years old at the foundation of the Rashidun Caliphate in June 632 by Abu Bakr (r. 632–634). Ibn Abbas and his father were among those who unsuccessfully requested part of Muhammad's inheritance.[citation needed] Abu Bakr said that he had heard Muhammad say that prophets do not leave inheritance behind as a divine rule.[citation needed]

Continued education[]

After Muhammad's era, he continued to collect and learn Muhammad's teaching from Muhammad's companions (Arabic: Sahaba), especially those who knew him the longest. He would consult multiple Sahaba to confirm narrations, and would go to as many as thirty Companions to verify a single matter.[3] Once he heard that a Sahaba knew a hadith unknown to him. A hadith attributed to Abd Allah ibn Abbas reports:[citation needed]

...I went to him during the time of the afternoon siesta and spread my cloak in front of his door. The wind blew dust on me (as I sat waiting for him). If I wished I could have sought his permission to enter and he would certainly have given me permission. But I preferred to wait on him so that he could be completely refreshed. Coming out of his house and seeing me in that condition he said, 'O cousin of the Prophet! What's the matter with you? If you had sent for me I would have come to you.' 'I am the one who should come to you, for knowledge is sought, it does not just come,' I said. I asked him about the hadith and learnt from him.[3]


In addition to his own scholarship, Ibn Abbas was a teacher. His house from where he taught became the equivalent of a university.[3]

One of his companions described a typical scene in front of his house:

I saw people converging on the roads leading to his house until there was hardly any room in front of his house. I went in and told him about the crowds of people at his door and he said: 'Get me water for wudu.'

He performed wudu and, seating himself, said: 'Go out and say to them: Whoever wants to ask about the Qur'an and its letters (pronunciation) let him enter.'

This I did and people entered until the house was filled. Whatever he was asked, Abdullah was able to elucidate and even provide additional information to what was asked. Then (to his students) he said: 'Make way for your brothers.'

Then to me he said: 'Go out and say: Who wants to ask about the Quran and its interpretation, let him enter'.

Again the house was filled and Abdullah elucidated and provided more information than what was requested.[3]

He held classes on one single subject each day. His classes covered topics such as tafsir, fiqh, Halal and Haraam, ghazawa, poetry, Arab history before Islam, inheritance laws, Arabic language and etymology.[3]

Umar's reign (634–644)[]

Advising Umar[]

Ibn Abbas served as a close advisor to the second caliph Umar (r. 634–644). Umar often sought the advice of Ibn Abbas on important matters of state and described him as a "young man of maturity":[3]A hadith attributed to Abd Allah ibn Abbas Sahih reports:[citation needed]

Umar used to make me sit with the elderly men who had fought in the battle of Badr. Some of them (Abd-al-Rahman ibn Awf[9]) felt it (did not like that) and said to Umar: "Why do you bring in this boy to sit with us, while we have sons like him?"

Umar replied "Because of what you know of his position" (i.e. his religious knowledge).

One day Umar called me and made me sit in the gathering of those people, and I think that he called me just to show them (my religious knowledge). 'Umar then asked them in my presence: 'What do you say about the interpretation of the statement of Allah'.

When comes help of God, and the conquest...

Some of them said: "We are ordered to praise God and ask for His forgiveness, when God's help and the conquest comes to us". Some others kept quiet and did not say anything. On that Umar asked me: "Do you say the same, O Ibn Abbas?" I replied: "No". He said: "What do you say then?" I replied: "That is the sign of the death of Prophet Muhammad, which God informed him of. God said:

(O Muhammad) when comes the help of God (to you against your enemies) and the conquest (which is the sign of your death) – you should celebrate the praises of your Lord and ask for His forgiveness, and He is the One who accepts the repentance and forgives". On that Umar said: "I do not know anything about it other than what you have said".


The Sahaba Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas said:

I have never seen someone who was quicker in understanding, who had more knowledge and greater wisdom than Ibn Abbas. I have seen Umar summon him to discuss difficult problems in the presence of veterans of Badr from among the Muhajirin and Ansar. Ibn Abbas would speak and Umar would not disregard what he had to say.[3]

Ali's reign (656–661)[]

Ibn Abbas was one of the closest companions of Ali (r. 656–661). He participated in the Battle of the Camel against the forces of Aisha, Talha and al-Zubayr in December 656. In the Battle of Siffin, Ibn Abbas commanded the cavalry of Ali's troops against the army of Mu'awiya I (r. 661–680).[10] Ibn Abbas remained a staunch supporter of the fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, during Ali's war with Muawiyah, including at the Battle of Siffin. He had also been given the position of governor of Basra during Ali's reign as Caliph.[citation needed]

A large group of Ali's army were discontented with the outcome of Ali's war with Muawiyah, and broke off into a separate group that became known as the Khawarij or Kharijites. Ibn Abbas played a key role in convincing a large number of them to return to Ali; 20,000 of 24,000 according to some sources. He did so using his knowledge of Muhammad's biography, in particular, the events of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah.[3] Mu'awiya ordered a gift of 100,000 dirham for Ibn Abbas.[11] Ibn Abbas is reported to have become sad after hearing Mu'awiya's death.[12]

680–683: Yazid's era[]

Sunnis believe that ibn Abbas was in favour of the unity of the Muslims and hence did not revolt against rulers. He advised Husayn ibn Ali against his proposed expion to Kufa that ended at Karbala.where?

Death[]

Ibn Abbas died from an illness in Taif in 687 at the age of seventy.[1][13] His funeral prayers were led by Ali's son Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya, who mourned saying "Today the master (rabbānī) of this community has died".[14] Ibn al-Hanafyya ordered the grave of Ibn Abbas to be made flat.[15]

Wives and children[]

By a Yemenite princess named Zahra bint Mishrah, Ibn Abbas had seven children.

  1. Al-Abbas, the first born, who was childless.
  2. Ali ibn Abdullah (died 736), who was the grandfather of the first two Abbasid caliphs, who replaced the Umayyads in 750.
  3. Muhammad, who was childless.
  4. Ubaydullah, who was childless.
  5. Al-Fadl, who was childless. (Riverine Sudanese trace their ancestry to al-Fadl through a son named Saeed, whose mother is said to be from the Ansar).
  6. Saad had two children
  7. Lubaba, who married Ali ibn Abdullah ibn Jaafar and had descendants.

He had another daughter, Asma, by a concubine; she married her cousin Abdullah ibn Ubaydullah ibn Abbas and had two sons.[16]

Hadith transmitted by him[]

Ibn Abbas narrated that Muhammad said, "Two favours are treated unjustly by most people: health and free time." (from Sahih Bukhari, al-Tirmidhi, ibn Majah and al-Nasa'i)[citation needed]

Ibn Abbas reported: Muhammad said, "He who does not memorize any part from the Qur'an, he is like the ruined house." (from Tirmidhi)[citation needed]

On the authority of Ibn Abbas, who said, "One day I was behind (i.e. riding behind him on the same mount) the Prophet and he said to me: 'Young man, I shall teach you some words (of advice). Be mindful of Allah, and Allah will protect you. Be mindful of Allah, and you will find Him in front of you. If you ask, ask of Allah; if you seek help, seek help of Allah. Know that if the nation were to gather together to benefit you with anything, it would benefit you only with something that Allah had already prescribed for you, and if they gather together to harm you with anything, they would harm you only with something Allah had already prescribed for you. The pens have been lifted and the pages have dried." (from Tirmidhi)

Al Hakim records on the authority of ibn Abbas that Muhammad advanced, carrying upon his back Hassan ibn Ali, and a man met him and said, 'an excellent steed thou ridest, lad!'. Muhammad replied, 'and he is an excellent rider.'[citation needed]

Ali ibn Husam Adin (commonly known as al-Mutaki al-Hindi) records that ibn Abbas narrated that Muhammad said the following about his deceased aunt Fatima, the mother of Ali: "I (Muhammad) put on her my shirt that she may wear the clothes of heaven, and I lay in her grave that I may lessen the pressure of the grave. She was the best of Allah’s creatures to me after Abu Talib".[citation needed]

Assessment and legacy[]

As Ibn Abbas' knowledge grew, he grew in stature. Masruq ibn al Ajda said of him:

Whenever I saw Ibn Abbas, I would say: He is the most handsome of men. When he spoke, I would say: He is the most eloquent of men. And when he held a conversation, I would say: He is the most knowledgeable of men."[3]

Ibn Abbas is highly respected by both Shia and Sunnis.[citation needed] The 1924 Cairo ion Quran adopted the chronological order of chapters promulgated by Ibn Abbās, which subsequently became widely accepted following 1924.[17][18] The Ibn Abbas Mosque in Taif is recorded to have been the first mosque in the city.[19]

His descendants[]

Quraysh tribe
Waqida bint AmrAbd Manaf ibn QusaiĀtikah bint Murrah
Nawfal ibn Abd Manaf‘Abd ShamsBarraHalaMuṭṭalib ibn Abd ManafHashimSalma bint Amr
Umayya ibn Abd ShamsʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib
HarbAbū al-ʿĀsʿĀminahʿAbdallāhHamzaAbī ṬālibAz-Zubayral-ʿAbbās Abū Lahab
ʾAbī Sufyān ibn Harbal-ḤakamʿAffānMUHAMMAD
(Family tree)
Khadija bint KhuwaylidʿAlī
(Family tree)
Khawlah bint Ja'farʿAbd Allāh
Muʿāwiyah IMarwān IʿUthmān ibn ʿAffānFatimahMuhammad ibn al-HanafiyyahʿAli ibn ʿAbdallāh
SufyanidsMarwanids al-Ḥasanal-Ḥusayn
(Family tree)
Abu Hashim
(Imām of al-Mukhtār and Hashimiyya)
Muhammad
"al-Imām"

(Abbasids)
Ibrāhim "al-Imām"al-Saffāḥal-Mansur

Views[]

Ibn Abbas viewed that Tafsir can be divided in four categories:[20]

Sunni view[]

Masjid Abdullah bin Abbas in Taif

Sunni view him as the most knowledgeable of the Companions in tafsir. A book entitled Tanwir al-Miqbas min Tafsir Ibn Abbas is tafsir, all explanations of which may go back to Ibn Abbas.[3] Of all narrations transmitted by Ibn Abbas, 1660 were considered authentic (Arabic: Sahih) by the authors of the two Sahihs.[3][21][page needed]

Regarding Ibn Abbas giving verdicts (Arabic: fatwa) in favor of Nikah Mut'ah, most Sunnis view that Ali corrected him on the matter, while other view that "Ibn Abbas position on the permissibility of Mut'ah until his last day is proven" per the Hadith of Ibn al-Zubayr and Mut'ah.[22] Ibn Abbas influenced Umar, Al-Rabi ibn Khuthaym,[23] Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr[24] and Wahb ibn Munnabih.[25] [26] [27]

Sunnis describe thus:

... the courageous Abdullah showed that he preferred peace above war, and logic against force and violence. However, he was not only known for his courage, his perceptive thought and his vast knowledge. He was also known for his great generosity and hospitality. Some of his contemporaries said of his household: "We have not seen a house with more food or drink or fruit or knowledge than the house of Ibn Abbas."

He had a genuine and abiding concern for people. He was thoughtful and caring. He once said: "When I realize the importance of a verse of God's Book, I would wish that all people should know what I know.

"When I hear of a Muslim ruler who deals equitably and rules justly, I am happy on his account and I pray for him...

"When I hear of rains that fall on the land of Muslims, that fills me with happiness..."

Abdullah ibn Abbas was constant in his devotions. He kept voluntary fasts regularly and often stayed up at night in Prayer. He would weep while praying and reading the Quran. And when reciting verses dealing with death, resurrection and the life hereafter his voice would be heavy from deep sobbing.[3]

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ a b c "'Abd Allah ibn al-'Abbas". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. pp. 16. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
  2. ^ Ludwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.134. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810861615.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o biography Archived 2009-05-28 at archive.today on the MSA West Compendium of Muslim Texts
  4. ^ Landau-Tasseron 1998, pp. 202–203.
  5. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 9:92:375
  6. ^ Sahih Muslim (#6523)
  7. ^ Regarding Omar's Refusal to Give the Prophet a Pen to Write his Will!!![permanent dead link]
  8. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:4:197, 1:11:634, 3:47:761,5:59:727
  9. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:56:821
  10. ^ Ali 2010, p. 306.
  11. ^ Madelung 1997, p. 333.
  12. ^ Cobb, Paul (2012-06-22). The Lineaments of Islam: Studies in Honor of Fred McGraw Donner. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-21885-7.
  13. ^ There is uncertainty as to the actual year of his death. Some sources state either 687 or 688.
  14. ^ Ayoub 1992, p. 235.
  15. ^ Landau-Tasseron 1998, p. 56.
  16. ^ Tabari, vol. 39, pp. 54-55.
  17. ^ Jane Dammen McAuliffe "Preface" Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an, Vol. 1
  18. ^ Gerhard Böwering, "Chronology and the Quran", Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an, Vol. 1, Brill
  19. ^ Dumper 2007, p. 343.
  20. ^ Interpreting The Text
  21. ^ Reliance of the Traveller by Ahmad al-Misr, (A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law), translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller, published by Amana publications, Beltsville, Maryland, USA 1991
  22. ^ Fatih al-Qadir by Muhammad ash-Shawkani, Sharh Hidaya Volume 3 p. 51
  23. ^ Mashahir, 99-Too; Ghaya, 1. 283; Abu Nuʿaym, II. 105-19; Kashif, I. 235; Ibn Marthad 41-3
  24. ^ usulgloss2 Archived November 15, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ "The Development of Exegesis in Early Islam". Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. Retrieved 2006-09-28.
  26. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia [1]
  27. ^ Media Monitors Network, A Few Comments on Tafsir of the Quran, Habib Siddiqui October 2004

Bibliography[]

External links[]