'99: The Last War

Repulse instruction card.png
Publisher(s)Sega, Kyugo, Proma
Director(s)Shunkō Miki
Designer(s)Atsushi Kawaguchi
Hiroyasu Kobayashi
Minoru Harada
Programmer(s)Shunkō Miki
Tatsuya Uemura
Composer(s)Tatsuya Uemura
Genre(s)Fixed shooter
Arcade systemSega Kyugo[3]

Repulse[a] is a fixed shooter arcade video game developed by Crux and published by Sega on June 1985.[4] In the game, players battle against the invading Aquila nation to defend Earth from world domination.[5] The title is notable for being created by most of the same team that previously worked on several projects at Orca and Crux before both companies declared bankruptcy, after which a group of employees from the two gaming divisions would go on to form Toaplan.


Gameplay screenshot

Repulse is a fixed shooter game reminiscent of Space Invaders and Phoenix, in which the player controls a laser cannon by moving it across the bottom of the screen and firing at robotic enemies and descending alien spaceships through six stages, five of which host a boss at the end that must be defeated in order to progress further.[6] The players' laser cannon is equipped with a limited force shield to endure any kind of enemy attacks, though its energy drains both while activated and whenever the ship gets hit.[6] Power-ups are dropped by ally helicopters and ships that bring to the players a faster shot than the normal one and refills the laser cannon's force field meter.[6][7] Reaching certain score thresholds by shooting at the enemies results in extra lives. Once all lives are lost, The game is over, unless the player inserts more crs into the arcade machine to continue playing.

Development and release[]

Repulse was created by most of the same team that previously worked on several projects at Orca and Crux before both companies declared bankruptcy, after which a group of employees from the two gaming divisions would go on to form Toaplan.[8][9][10][11] Shunkō Miki served as the project's director, who shared the role of programmer with composer Tatsuya Uemura alongside designers Atsushi Kawaguchi, Hiroyasu Kobayashi and Minoru Harada.[8][9] Uemura recounted the title's development process and history through various Japanese publications, stating that development lasted six months and worked on the project in conjunction with Performan for Toaplan, who recruited him for sound design, while he still formed part of Crux.[9][10][11][12]

Repulse was released in arcades by Sega in June 1985.[4] The game was one of the three titles that ran on Sega's Kyugo hardware.[3] It was later renamed '99: The Last War when licensed to Kyugo, who developed the hardware, and Proma.[4]

Reception and legacy[]

Though Repulse saw success in its first few months on the market,[13] the game did not garner attention from arcade players.[14] The project became the last title developed by Crux to be released, as the company was dissolved during its development due to bankruptcy.[10][11][15] Most of the former Crux members would later join Toaplan.[9][10][11] A bootleg version of the game titled Son of Phoenix was also released.[4]


  1. ^ Japanese: リパルス, Hepburn: Riparusu, also known as '99: The Last War


  1. ^ Famitsu DC (15 February 2002). Chapter 3 - H, Y board & SYSTEM 16, 18, 24, 31: 1985 - リパルス. セガ・アーケード・ヒストリー (Sega Arcade History). Famitsu Books (in Japanese). Enterbrain. p. 77. ISBN 9784757707900.
  2. ^ Akagi, Masumi (13 October 2006). 九娯貿易(キューコ)Kyugo; セガ社 (Sega). アーケードTVゲームリスト 国内•海外編 (1971-2005) (in Japanese) (1st ed.). Amusement News Agency. pp. 25, 35. ISBN 978-4990251215.
  3. ^ a b "Sega Kyugo Hardware (Sega)". system16.com. Retrieved 2020-01-09.
  4. ^ a b c d "Repulse". arcade-history.com. Retrieved 2020-01-09.
  5. ^ Alan Marriott, Scott (1998). "'99: The Last War - Overview". AllGame. All Media Network. Archived from the original on 2014-11-14. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  6. ^ a b c Sotenga (January 23, 2014). "Repulse". Hardcore Gaming 101. Archived from the original on 2014-03-04. Retrieved 2020-04-05.
  7. ^ Repulse 取扱説明書 (Arcade, JP)
  8. ^ a b Crux (June 1985). Repulse (Arcade). Sega. Level/area: Staff.
  9. ^ a b c d Iona; VHS; K-HEX (June 2009). "東亜プラン FOREVER". Floor 25 (in Japanese). Vol. 9. pp. 1–70. (Translation by Gamengai. Archived 2020-10-10 at the Wayback Machine).
  10. ^ a b c d "東亜プラン シューティングクロニクル". SweepRecord (in Japanese). SuperSweep. 14 November 2011. Archived from the original on 2019-10-21. Retrieved 2020-02-27. (Translation by Shmuplations. Archived 2018-07-11 at the Wayback Machine).
  11. ^ a b c d Kiyoshi, Tane; hally (VORC); Yūsaku, Yamamoto (3 February 2012). "東亜プラン特集 - 元・東亜プラン 開発者インタビュー: 上村建也". Shooting Gameside (in Japanese). Vol. 4. Micro Magazine. pp. 33–40. ISBN 978-4896373844. (Translation by Shmuplations. Archived 2019-09-06 at the Wayback Machine).
  12. ^ Uemura, Tatsuya. "同じメンツで色々な名前の会社があった". Magicseed inc. Archived from the original on 2014-08-28. Retrieved 2020-07-30.
  13. ^ "Game Machine's Best Hit Games 25 - テーブル型TVゲーム機 (Table Videos)". Game Machine (in Japanese). No. 265. Amusement Press, Inc. 1 August 1985. p. 25.
  14. ^ Horowitz, Ken (June 22, 2018). A Second Arcade Golden Age (1985-1988) - Fantasy Zone (March 1986). The Sega Arcade Revolution: A History in 62 Games. McFarland & Company. p. 102. ISBN 9781476631967. Retrieved 2020-01-10.
  15. ^ Lambie, Ryan (21 June 2018). "Toaplan: the rise and fall of Japan's greatest shooting game company". Den of Geek. Dennis Publishing. Archived from the original on 21 June 2018. Retrieved 2020-01-09.

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