In 1948, Harry S. Truman contested the presidency of the United States. Truman (pictured), a Democrat, ascended to the presidency upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. His pro–civil rights views were opposed by most of the Southern Democrats; when the Democratic National Convention adopted his civil rights plank, a large group of Southerners walked out. Truman selected Alben W. Barkley as his running mate. Campaigning against Thomas E. Dewey, the Republican candidate, Truman called the Republican-controlled 80th Congress a "do-nothing Congress". He conducted a whistle-stop tour giving speeches in different states. With the split of the Democratic Party, most of the polls predicted Truman to lose the election. On the election day, before the declaration of final results, an early ion of the Chicago Daily Tribune printed the headline "Dewey Defeats Truman", boldly anticipating Dewey's victory. Truman won the election in one of the greatest upset victories, receiving 303 electoral votes. (Full article...)
Between 1873 and 1932, the American composer John Philip Sousa composed 136 American military marches, for which he is best known. Sousa derived few of his marches from his other musical compositions such as melodies and operettas. "The Stars and Stripes Forever" (audio featured) is considered to be Sousa's most famous composition. A British journalist named Sousa "The March King", in comparison to "The Waltz King", a nickname of Johann Strauss II. However, not all of Sousa's marches have had the same level of public appeal. Some of his early marches are less well-known and rarely performed. Sousa served as leader of the United States Marine Band from 1880 to 1892, and performed at the inaugural balls of Presidents James A. Garfield and Benjamin Harrison. In 1987, "The Stars and Stripes Forever" was made the national march of the United States, by an act of Congress. The "U.S. Field Artillery March" is the official march of the United States Army. After leaving the Marine Band, he formed a civilian band and composed various marches in the subsequent 39 years. (Full list...)
The Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital (also known as USPHS Hospital #43) was a United States Public Health Service hospital on Ellis Island in New York Harbor that operated from 1902 to 1951. It is part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. The hospital had two functions: treating immigrants who were ill upon arrival, and treating immigrants with conditions that were prohibited by immigration laws. These latter patients were stabilized and often sent back to their home countries. More than 275,000 patients were treated at Ellis Island; there were approximately 4,000 fatalities and 350 babies were born there. Efforts to restore the hospital buildings and other structures on the island are being made by the non-profit organization Save Ellis Island. This photograph depicts a window in the Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital, decorated in 2014 by the French artist JR with reproductions of photographs of immigrants at the hospital.