$20 bill U.S

Twenty dollars
(United States)
Value$20
Width156 mm
Height66.3 mm
Weightc. 1.0[1] g
Security featuresSecurity fibers, watermark, security thread, color shifting ink, micro printing, raised printing, EURion constellation
Material used75% cotton
25% linen
Years of printing1861–present
Obverse
US $20 Series 2006 Obverse.jpg
DesignAndrew Jackson
Design date2003
Reverse
US $20 Series 2006 Reverse.jpg
DesignWhite House
Design date2003

The United States twenty-dollar bill ($20) is a denomination of U.S. currency. Andrew Jackson, the seventh U.S. president (1829–1837), has been featured on the front side of the bill since 1928; the White House is featured on the reverse.

As of December 2013, the average circulation life of a $20 bill is 7.9 years before it is replaced due to wear.[2] About 11% of all notes printed in 2009 were $20 bills.[3] Twenty-dollar bills are delivered by Federal Reserve Banks in violet straps.

History[]

Large-sized notes[]

1863 $20 Legal Tender note
1880 $20 Legal Tender depicting Alexander Hamilton
Series 1905 $20 gold certificate
1914 $20 Federal Reserve Note

Small size notes[]

1928 $20 small-size Federal Reserve Note.
Series 1929 $20 National Currency note issued by the Cleveland Federal Reserve Bank.
Series 1995 $20 Federal Reserve Note.
Series 1996 $20 Federal Reserve Note.
The security strip in a twenty-dollar bill glows green under a blacklight.

Andrew Jackson first appeared on the $20 bill in 1928. Although 1928 coincides with the 100th anniversary of Jackson's election as president, it is not clear why the portrait on the bill was switched from Grover Cleveland to Jackson. (Cleveland's portrait was moved to the new $1000 bill the same year). According to the U.S. Treasury, "Treasury Department records do not reveal the reason that portraits of these particular statesmen were chosen in preference to those of other persons of equal importance and prominence."[4]

The placement of Jackson on the $20 bill may be a historical irony; as president, he vehemently opposed both the National Bank and paper money and made the goal of his administration the destruction of the National Bank.[5][6] In his farewell address to the nation, he cautioned the public about paper money.[7]

Series dates[]

Small size[]

Type Series Register Treasurer Seal
National Bank Note Types 1 & 2 1929 Jones Woods Brown
Federal Reserve Bank Note 1928A Jones Woods Brown
Type Series Treasurer Secretary Seal
Gold Certificate 1928 Woods Mellon Gold
Federal Reserve Note 1928 Tate Mellon Green
Federal Reserve Note 1928A Woods Mellon Green
Federal Reserve Note 1928B Woods Mellon Green
Federal Reserve Note 1928C Woods Mills Green
Federal Reserve Note 1934 Julian Morgenthau Green
Federal Reserve Note 1934 Hawaii Julian Morgenthau Brown
Federal Reserve Note 1934A Julian Morgenthau Green
Federal Reserve Note 1934A Hawaii Julian Morgenthau Brown
Federal Reserve Note 1934B Julian Vinson Green
Federal Reserve Note 1934C Julian Snyder Green
Federal Reserve Note 1934D Clark Snyder Green
Federal Reserve Note 1950 Clark Snyder Green
Federal Reserve Note 1950A Priest Humphrey Green
Federal Reserve Note 1950B Priest Anderson Green
Federal Reserve Note 1950C Smith Dillon Green
Federal Reserve Note 1950D Granahan Dillon Green
Federal Reserve Note 1950E Granahan Fowler Green
Federal Reserve Note 1963 Granahan Dillon Green
Federal Reserve Note 1963A Granahan Fowler Green
Federal Reserve Note 1969 Elston Kennedy Green
Federal Reserve Note 1969A Kabis Connally Green
Federal Reserve Note 1969B Bañuelos Connally Green
Federal Reserve Note 1969C Bañuelos Shultz Green
Federal Reserve Note 1974 Neff Simon Green
Federal Reserve Note 1977 Morton Blumenthal Green
Federal Reserve Note 1981 Buchanan Regan Green
Federal Reserve Note 1981A Ortega Regan Green
Federal Reserve Note 1985 Ortega Baker Green
Federal Reserve Note 1988A Villalpando Brady Green
Federal Reserve Note 1990 Villalpando Brady Green
Federal Reserve Note 1993 Withrow Bentsen Green
Federal Reserve Note 1995 Withrow Rubin Green
Federal Reserve Note 1996 Withrow Rubin Green
Federal Reserve Note 1999 Withrow Summers Green
Federal Reserve Note 2001 Marin O'Neill Green
Federal Reserve Note 2004 Marin Snow Green
Federal Reserve Note 2004A Cabral Snow Green
Federal Reserve Note 2006 Cabral Paulson Green
Federal Reserve Note 2009 Rios Geithner Green
Federal Reserve Note 2013 Rios Lew Green
Federal Reserve Note 2017 Carranza Mnuchin Green
Federal Reserve Note 2017A Carranza Mnuchin Green

Proposal for a woman's portrait[]

In a campaign called "Women on 20s", selected voters were asked to choose three of 15 female candidates to have a portrait on the $20 bill. The goal was to have a woman on the $20 bill by 2020, the centennial of the 19th Amendment which gave women the right to vote.[13] Among the candidates on the petition were Harriet Tubman, Eleanor Roosevelt, Rosa Parks, and Wilma Mankiller, the first female chief of the Cherokee Nation.[14]

On May 12, 2015, Tubman was announced as the winning candidate of that "grassroots" poll with more than 600,000 people surveyed and more than 118,000 choosing Tubman, followed by Roosevelt, Parks and Mankiller.[15]

Image of $20 bill with Tubman's face
Official $20 bill prototype prepared by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing in 2016[16]

On June 17, 2015, then-Treasury Secretary Jack Lew announced that a woman's portrait would be featured on a redesigned $10 bill by 2020, replacing Alexander Hamilton.[17] However, that decision was reversed, at least in part due to Hamilton's surging popularity following the hit Broadway musical Hamilton.[18]

On April 20, 2016, Lew officially announced that Alexander Hamilton would remain on the $10 bill, while Andrew Jackson would be replaced by Tubman on the front of the $20 bill, with Jackson appearing on the reverse.[19][20] Lew simultaneously announced that the five- and ten-dollar bills would also be redesigned in the coming years and put into production in the next decade.[19][20]

Trump administration[]

While campaigning for president, Donald Trump reacted to the announcement that Tubman would replace Jackson on the twenty-dollar bill. The day following the announcement Trump called Tubman "fantastic", but stated that he would oppose replacing Jackson with Tubman, calling the replacement "pure political correctness", and suggested that Tubman could perhaps be put on another denomination instead.[21]

On August 31, 2017, Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said that he would not commit to putting Tubman on the twenty-dollar bill, explaining "People have been on the bills for a long period of time. This is something we’ll consider; right now we have a lot more important issues to focus on."[22] According to a Bureau of Engraving and Printing spokesperson, the next redesigned bill will be the ten-dollar bill, not set to be released into circulation until at least 2026. Because of this, it appears that a redesigned twenty-dollar bill featuring Tubman might not be released until years after the original 2020 release date, if at all.[23][24]

In May 2019, Mnuchin stated that no new imagery will be unveiled until 2026, and that a new bill will not go into circulation until 2028.[25] In making the announcement, Mnuchin blamed the delay on technical reasons. However, an employee within the Bureau of Engraving and Printing told the New York Times that at the time of the announcement "the design appeared to be far along in the process." Democratic members of the House of Representatives asked Mnuchin to provide more specific reasons for the delay.[26] In response, a number of individuals have begun producing rubber stamps by which an image of Tubman can be printed on top of that of Jackson.[27]

In June 2019, the Treasury Department's acting inspector general, Rich Delmar, announced his office would conduct an investigation into what caused the delay in production of the new bill featuring Tubman.[28]

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ "Currency Facts". uscurrency.gov. U.S. Currency Education Program. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  2. ^ "How long is the life span of U.S. paper money?". Federal Reserve. Retrieved April 16, 2015.
  3. ^ "Money Facts". Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Archived from the original on December 6, 2005.
  4. ^ "U.S. Currency FAQs". U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Archived from the original on May 5, 2015. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
  5. ^ "Jackson as President". CliffsNotes. Retrieved November 20, 2007.
  6. ^ "Jackson Vetoes Bank Bill — July 10, 1832". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved November 20, 2007.
  7. ^ s:Andrew Jackson's Farewell Address
  8. ^ "USPaperMoney.Info: Series 1990 $20".
  9. ^ "New $20 Bill Debuts September 24th - 09/21/98".
  10. ^ "USPaperMoney.Info: Series 1996 $20".
  11. ^ "Anti-Counterfeiting". Bureau of Engraving and Printing. United States Treasury. 2007. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
  12. ^ "USPaperMoney.Info: Series 2004 $20".
  13. ^ "Why the $20?". Women On 20s. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
  14. ^ Tan, Avianne (April 8, 2015). "'Women on 20s' to Ask President Obama to Put One of These 4 Women on $20 Bill". ABC News. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
    Which country has the least sexist banknotes? BBC. April 13, 2015. Retrieved on April 14, 2015.
    "Final Round Candidates". Women On 20s. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
  15. ^ "Harriet Tubman wins poll to replace Andrew Jackson on $20 bill". New York Post. Reuters. May 13, 2015. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  16. ^ Rappeport, Alan (June 24, 2019). "Treasury's Inspector General to Review Harriet Tubman $20 Bill Delay". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  17. ^ "Andrew Jackson To Be Taken Off The $20 Bill". Huffington Post. April 17, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
  18. ^ Nguyen, Tina. ""Hamilton" Fans, Rejoice: Founding Father to Stay on the $10 Bill". Vanity Fair.
  19. ^ a b "Treasury Secretary Lew Announces Front of New $20 to Feature Harriet Tubman, Lays Out Plans for New $20, $10 and $5" (Press release). United States Department of the Treasury. April 20, 2016. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
    White, Ben; McCaskill, Nolan D. "Treasury's Lew to announce Hamilton to stay on $10 bill". Politico. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  20. ^ a b Korte, Gregory (April 21, 2016). "Anti-slavery activist Harriet Tubman to replace Jackson on the front of the $20 bill". USA Today. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  21. ^ Wright, David (April 21, 2016). "Trump: Tubman on the $20 bill is 'pure political correctness'". CNN.
  22. ^ Temple-West, Patrick (August 31, 2017). "Mnuchin dismisses question about putting Harriet Tubman on $20 bill". Politico. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  23. ^ What Happened to the Plan to Put Harriet Tubman on the $20 Bill?
  24. ^ The Harriet Tubman $20 Bill Plan Has Been Put on the Back Burner
  25. ^ Rappeport, Alan (May 22, 2019). "Harriet Tubman $20 Bill Is Delayed Until Trump Leaves Office, Mnuchin Says". New York Times. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
  26. ^ Rappeport, Alan (June 14, 2019). "See a Design of the Harriet Tubman $20 Bill That Mnuchin Delayed". New York Times.
  27. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/history/2019/05/24/harriet-tubman-is-already-appearing-bills-whether-trump-officials-like-it-or-not/
  28. ^ "Treasury Department Launches Investigation Into Delays Behind Harriet Tubman $20 Bill". NPR.org. Retrieved January 28, 2020.

External links[]