!Ga!nge language

RegionSouth Africa
Extinctearly 20th century
  • ǃKwi
    • ǃGãǃne
Language codes
ISO 639-3included in kqu[1]

ǃGãǃne (ǃGãǃnge) is an extinct language of the ǃKwi family which was once spoken near Tsolo and in Umtata District in South Africa, south of Lesotho. The only material on the language is 140 words collected from two semi-speakers in 1931.[2]

Like ǁXegwi, ǃGãǃne is considered an "outlier" among the ǃKwi languages by Güldemann (2005, 2011). Ethnologue and Glottolog count it as a dialect of Seroa,[3] though the two have no demonstrable connection apart from being in the ǃKwi family.[2]


  1. ^ Ethnologue erroneously includes ǃGãǃne in Seroa, but the two languages have only one known word in common.
  2. ^ a b Anthony Traill, "The Khoisan Languages of South Africa", in Rajend Mesthrie, ed., 1995, Language and Social History: Studies in South African Sociolinguistics
  3. ^ Seroa at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)